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// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
/*
 *	linux/mm/filemap.c
 *
 * Copyright (C) 1994-1999  Linus Torvalds
 */

/*
 * This file handles the generic file mmap semantics used by
 * most "normal" filesystems (but you don't /have/ to use this:
 * the NFS filesystem used to do this differently, for example)
 */
#include <linux/export.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
#include <linux/dax.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/sched/signal.h>
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
#include <linux/capability.h>
#include <linux/kernel_stat.h>
#include <linux/gfp.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/swapops.h>
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
#include <linux/mman.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/uio.h>
#include <linux/error-injection.h>
#include <linux/hash.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
#include <linux/security.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
#include <linux/memcontrol.h>
#include <linux/shmem_fs.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
#include <linux/delayacct.h>
#include <linux/psi.h>
#include <linux/ramfs.h>
#include <linux/page_idle.h>
#include <linux/migrate.h>
#include <linux/pipe_fs_i.h>
#include <linux/splice.h>
#include <asm/pgalloc.h>
#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
#include "internal.h"

#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
#include <trace/events/filemap.h>

/*
 * FIXME: remove all knowledge of the buffer layer from the core VM
 */
#include <linux/buffer_head.h> /* for try_to_free_buffers */

#include <asm/mman.h>

#include "swap.h"

/*
 * Shared mappings implemented 30.11.1994. It's not fully working yet,
 * though.
 *
 * Shared mappings now work. 15.8.1995  Bruno.
 *
 * finished 'unifying' the page and buffer cache and SMP-threaded the
 * page-cache, 21.05.1999, Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
 *
 * SMP-threaded pagemap-LRU 1999, Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de>
 */

/*
 * Lock ordering:
 *
 *  ->i_mmap_rwsem		(truncate_pagecache)
 *    ->private_lock		(__free_pte->block_dirty_folio)
 *      ->swap_lock		(exclusive_swap_page, others)
 *        ->i_pages lock
 *
 *  ->i_rwsem
 *    ->invalidate_lock		(acquired by fs in truncate path)
 *      ->i_mmap_rwsem		(truncate->unmap_mapping_range)
 *
 *  ->mmap_lock
 *    ->i_mmap_rwsem
 *      ->page_table_lock or pte_lock	(various, mainly in memory.c)
 *        ->i_pages lock	(arch-dependent flush_dcache_mmap_lock)
 *
 *  ->mmap_lock
 *    ->invalidate_lock		(filemap_fault)
 *      ->lock_page		(filemap_fault, access_process_vm)
 *
 *  ->i_rwsem			(generic_perform_write)
 *    ->mmap_lock		(fault_in_readable->do_page_fault)
 *
 *  bdi->wb.list_lock
 *    sb_lock			(fs/fs-writeback.c)
 *    ->i_pages lock		(__sync_single_inode)
 *
 *  ->i_mmap_rwsem
 *    ->anon_vma.lock		(vma_merge)
 *
 *  ->anon_vma.lock
 *    ->page_table_lock or pte_lock	(anon_vma_prepare and various)
 *
 *  ->page_table_lock or pte_lock
 *    ->swap_lock		(try_to_unmap_one)
 *    ->private_lock		(try_to_unmap_one)
 *    ->i_pages lock		(try_to_unmap_one)
 *    ->lruvec->lru_lock	(follow_page->mark_page_accessed)
 *    ->lruvec->lru_lock	(check_pte_range->isolate_lru_page)
 *    ->private_lock		(page_remove_rmap->set_page_dirty)
 *    ->i_pages lock		(page_remove_rmap->set_page_dirty)
 *    bdi.wb->list_lock		(page_remove_rmap->set_page_dirty)
 *    ->inode->i_lock		(page_remove_rmap->set_page_dirty)
 *    ->memcg->move_lock	(page_remove_rmap->folio_memcg_lock)
 *    bdi.wb->list_lock		(zap_pte_range->set_page_dirty)
 *    ->inode->i_lock		(zap_pte_range->set_page_dirty)
 *    ->private_lock		(zap_pte_range->block_dirty_folio)
 *
 * ->i_mmap_rwsem
 *   ->tasklist_lock            (memory_failure, collect_procs_ao)
 */

static void page_cache_delete(struct address_space *mapping,
				   struct folio *folio, void *shadow)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, folio->index);
	long nr = 1;

	mapping_set_update(&xas, mapping);

	/* hugetlb pages are represented by a single entry in the xarray */
	if (!folio_test_hugetlb(folio)) {
		xas_set_order(&xas, folio->index, folio_order(folio));
		nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
	}

	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_test_locked(folio), folio);

	xas_store(&xas, shadow);
	xas_init_marks(&xas);

	folio->mapping = NULL;
	/* Leave page->index set: truncation lookup relies upon it */
	mapping->nrpages -= nr;
}

static void filemap_unaccount_folio(struct address_space *mapping,
		struct folio *folio)
{
	long nr;

	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(folio_mapped(folio), folio);
	if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DEBUG_VM) && unlikely(folio_mapped(folio))) {
		pr_alert("BUG: Bad page cache in process %s  pfn:%05lx\n",
			 current->comm, folio_pfn(folio));
		dump_page(&folio->page, "still mapped when deleted");
		dump_stack();
		add_taint(TAINT_BAD_PAGE, LOCKDEP_NOW_UNRELIABLE);

		if (mapping_exiting(mapping) && !folio_test_large(folio)) {
			int mapcount = page_mapcount(&folio->page);

			if (folio_ref_count(folio) >= mapcount + 2) {
				/*
				 * All vmas have already been torn down, so it's
				 * a good bet that actually the page is unmapped
				 * and we'd rather not leak it: if we're wrong,
				 * another bad page check should catch it later.
				 */
				page_mapcount_reset(&folio->page);
				folio_ref_sub(folio, mapcount);
			}
		}
	}

	/* hugetlb folios do not participate in page cache accounting. */
	if (folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
		return;

	nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);

	__lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_FILE_PAGES, -nr);
	if (folio_test_swapbacked(folio)) {
		__lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_SHMEM, -nr);
		if (folio_test_pmd_mappable(folio))
			__lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_SHMEM_THPS, -nr);
	} else if (folio_test_pmd_mappable(folio)) {
		__lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_FILE_THPS, -nr);
		filemap_nr_thps_dec(mapping);
	}

	/*
	 * At this point folio must be either written or cleaned by
	 * truncate.  Dirty folio here signals a bug and loss of
	 * unwritten data - on ordinary filesystems.
	 *
	 * But it's harmless on in-memory filesystems like tmpfs; and can
	 * occur when a driver which did get_user_pages() sets page dirty
	 * before putting it, while the inode is being finally evicted.
	 *
	 * Below fixes dirty accounting after removing the folio entirely
	 * but leaves the dirty flag set: it has no effect for truncated
	 * folio and anyway will be cleared before returning folio to
	 * buddy allocator.
	 */
	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(folio_test_dirty(folio) &&
			 mapping_can_writeback(mapping)))
		folio_account_cleaned(folio, inode_to_wb(mapping->host));
}

/*
 * Delete a page from the page cache and free it. Caller has to make
 * sure the page is locked and that nobody else uses it - or that usage
 * is safe.  The caller must hold the i_pages lock.
 */
void __filemap_remove_folio(struct folio *folio, void *shadow)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = folio->mapping;

	trace_mm_filemap_delete_from_page_cache(folio);
	filemap_unaccount_folio(mapping, folio);
	page_cache_delete(mapping, folio, shadow);
}

void filemap_free_folio(struct address_space *mapping, struct folio *folio)
{
	void (*free_folio)(struct folio *);
	int refs = 1;

	free_folio = mapping->a_ops->free_folio;
	if (free_folio)
		free_folio(folio);

	if (folio_test_large(folio) && !folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
		refs = folio_nr_pages(folio);
	folio_put_refs(folio, refs);
}

/**
 * filemap_remove_folio - Remove folio from page cache.
 * @folio: The folio.
 *
 * This must be called only on folios that are locked and have been
 * verified to be in the page cache.  It will never put the folio into
 * the free list because the caller has a reference on the page.
 */
void filemap_remove_folio(struct folio *folio)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = folio->mapping;

	BUG_ON(!folio_test_locked(folio));
	spin_lock(&mapping->host->i_lock);
	xa_lock_irq(&mapping->i_pages);
	__filemap_remove_folio(folio, NULL);
	xa_unlock_irq(&mapping->i_pages);
	if (mapping_shrinkable(mapping))
		inode_add_lru(mapping->host);
	spin_unlock(&mapping->host->i_lock);

	filemap_free_folio(mapping, folio);
}

/*
 * page_cache_delete_batch - delete several folios from page cache
 * @mapping: the mapping to which folios belong
 * @fbatch: batch of folios to delete
 *
 * The function walks over mapping->i_pages and removes folios passed in
 * @fbatch from the mapping. The function expects @fbatch to be sorted
 * by page index and is optimised for it to be dense.
 * It tolerates holes in @fbatch (mapping entries at those indices are not
 * modified).
 *
 * The function expects the i_pages lock to be held.
 */
static void page_cache_delete_batch(struct address_space *mapping,
			     struct folio_batch *fbatch)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, fbatch->folios[0]->index);
	long total_pages = 0;
	int i = 0;
	struct folio *folio;

	mapping_set_update(&xas, mapping);
	xas_for_each(&xas, folio, ULONG_MAX) {
		if (i >= folio_batch_count(fbatch))
			break;

		/* A swap/dax/shadow entry got inserted? Skip it. */
		if (xa_is_value(folio))
			continue;
		/*
		 * A page got inserted in our range? Skip it. We have our
		 * pages locked so they are protected from being removed.
		 * If we see a page whose index is higher than ours, it
		 * means our page has been removed, which shouldn't be
		 * possible because we're holding the PageLock.
		 */
		if (folio != fbatch->folios[i]) {
			VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(folio->index >
					fbatch->folios[i]->index, folio);
			continue;
		}

		WARN_ON_ONCE(!folio_test_locked(folio));

		folio->mapping = NULL;
		/* Leave folio->index set: truncation lookup relies on it */

		i++;
		xas_store(&xas, NULL);
		total_pages += folio_nr_pages(folio);
	}
	mapping->nrpages -= total_pages;
}

void delete_from_page_cache_batch(struct address_space *mapping,
				  struct folio_batch *fbatch)
{
	int i;

	if (!folio_batch_count(fbatch))
		return;

	spin_lock(&mapping->host->i_lock);
	xa_lock_irq(&mapping->i_pages);
	for (i = 0; i < folio_batch_count(fbatch); i++) {
		struct folio *folio = fbatch->folios[i];

		trace_mm_filemap_delete_from_page_cache(folio);
		filemap_unaccount_folio(mapping, folio);
	}
	page_cache_delete_batch(mapping, fbatch);
	xa_unlock_irq(&mapping->i_pages);
	if (mapping_shrinkable(mapping))
		inode_add_lru(mapping->host);
	spin_unlock(&mapping->host->i_lock);

	for (i = 0; i < folio_batch_count(fbatch); i++)
		filemap_free_folio(mapping, fbatch->folios[i]);
}

int filemap_check_errors(struct address_space *mapping)
{
	int ret = 0;
	/* Check for outstanding write errors */
	if (test_bit(AS_ENOSPC, &mapping->flags) &&
	    test_and_clear_bit(AS_ENOSPC, &mapping->flags))
		ret = -ENOSPC;
	if (test_bit(AS_EIO, &mapping->flags) &&
	    test_and_clear_bit(AS_EIO, &mapping->flags))
		ret = -EIO;
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_check_errors);

static int filemap_check_and_keep_errors(struct address_space *mapping)
{
	/* Check for outstanding write errors */
	if (test_bit(AS_EIO, &mapping->flags))
		return -EIO;
	if (test_bit(AS_ENOSPC, &mapping->flags))
		return -ENOSPC;
	return 0;
}

/**
 * filemap_fdatawrite_wbc - start writeback on mapping dirty pages in range
 * @mapping:	address space structure to write
 * @wbc:	the writeback_control controlling the writeout
 *
 * Call writepages on the mapping using the provided wbc to control the
 * writeout.
 *
 * Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise.
 */
int filemap_fdatawrite_wbc(struct address_space *mapping,
			   struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
	int ret;

	if (!mapping_can_writeback(mapping) ||
	    !mapping_tagged(mapping, PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY))
		return 0;

	wbc_attach_fdatawrite_inode(wbc, mapping->host);
	ret = do_writepages(mapping, wbc);
	wbc_detach_inode(wbc);
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_fdatawrite_wbc);

/**
 * __filemap_fdatawrite_range - start writeback on mapping dirty pages in range
 * @mapping:	address space structure to write
 * @start:	offset in bytes where the range starts
 * @end:	offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)
 * @sync_mode:	enable synchronous operation
 *
 * Start writeback against all of a mapping's dirty pages that lie
 * within the byte offsets <start, end> inclusive.
 *
 * If sync_mode is WB_SYNC_ALL then this is a "data integrity" operation, as
 * opposed to a regular memory cleansing writeback.  The difference between
 * these two operations is that if a dirty page/buffer is encountered, it must
 * be waited upon, and not just skipped over.
 *
 * Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise.
 */
int __filemap_fdatawrite_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start,
				loff_t end, int sync_mode)
{
	struct writeback_control wbc = {
		.sync_mode = sync_mode,
		.nr_to_write = LONG_MAX,
		.range_start = start,
		.range_end = end,
	};

	return filemap_fdatawrite_wbc(mapping, &wbc);
}

static inline int __filemap_fdatawrite(struct address_space *mapping,
	int sync_mode)
{
	return __filemap_fdatawrite_range(mapping, 0, LLONG_MAX, sync_mode);
}

int filemap_fdatawrite(struct address_space *mapping)
{
	return __filemap_fdatawrite(mapping, WB_SYNC_ALL);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_fdatawrite);

int filemap_fdatawrite_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start,
				loff_t end)
{
	return __filemap_fdatawrite_range(mapping, start, end, WB_SYNC_ALL);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_fdatawrite_range);

/**
 * filemap_flush - mostly a non-blocking flush
 * @mapping:	target address_space
 *
 * This is a mostly non-blocking flush.  Not suitable for data-integrity
 * purposes - I/O may not be started against all dirty pages.
 *
 * Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise.
 */
int filemap_flush(struct address_space *mapping)
{
	return __filemap_fdatawrite(mapping, WB_SYNC_NONE);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_flush);

/**
 * filemap_range_has_page - check if a page exists in range.
 * @mapping:           address space within which to check
 * @start_byte:        offset in bytes where the range starts
 * @end_byte:          offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)
 *
 * Find at least one page in the range supplied, usually used to check if
 * direct writing in this range will trigger a writeback.
 *
 * Return: %true if at least one page exists in the specified range,
 * %false otherwise.
 */
bool filemap_range_has_page(struct address_space *mapping,
			   loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)
{
	struct folio *folio;
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, start_byte >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	pgoff_t max = end_byte >> PAGE_SHIFT;

	if (end_byte < start_byte)
		return false;

	rcu_read_lock();
	for (;;) {
		folio = xas_find(&xas, max);
		if (xas_retry(&xas, folio))
			continue;
		/* Shadow entries don't count */
		if (xa_is_value(folio))
			continue;
		/*
		 * We don't need to try to pin this page; we're about to
		 * release the RCU lock anyway.  It is enough to know that
		 * there was a page here recently.
		 */
		break;
	}
	rcu_read_unlock();

	return folio != NULL;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_range_has_page);

static void __filemap_fdatawait_range(struct address_space *mapping,
				     loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)
{
	pgoff_t index = start_byte >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	pgoff_t end = end_byte >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	struct folio_batch fbatch;
	unsigned nr_folios;

	folio_batch_init(&fbatch);

	while (index <= end) {
		unsigned i;

		nr_folios = filemap_get_folios_tag(mapping, &index, end,
				PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK, &fbatch);

		if (!nr_folios)
			break;

		for (i = 0; i < nr_folios; i++) {
			struct folio *folio = fbatch.folios[i];

			folio_wait_writeback(folio);
			folio_clear_error(folio);
		}
		folio_batch_release(&fbatch);
		cond_resched();
	}
}

/**
 * filemap_fdatawait_range - wait for writeback to complete
 * @mapping:		address space structure to wait for
 * @start_byte:		offset in bytes where the range starts
 * @end_byte:		offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)
 *
 * Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the given address space
 * in the given range and wait for all of them.  Check error status of
 * the address space and return it.
 *
 * Since the error status of the address space is cleared by this function,
 * callers are responsible for checking the return value and handling and/or
 * reporting the error.
 *
 * Return: error status of the address space.
 */
int filemap_fdatawait_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start_byte,
			    loff_t end_byte)
{
	__filemap_fdatawait_range(mapping, start_byte, end_byte);
	return filemap_check_errors(mapping);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_fdatawait_range);

/**
 * filemap_fdatawait_range_keep_errors - wait for writeback to complete
 * @mapping:		address space structure to wait for
 * @start_byte:		offset in bytes where the range starts
 * @end_byte:		offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)
 *
 * Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the given address space in the
 * given range and wait for all of them.  Unlike filemap_fdatawait_range(),
 * this function does not clear error status of the address space.
 *
 * Use this function if callers don't handle errors themselves.  Expected
 * call sites are system-wide / filesystem-wide data flushers: e.g. sync(2),
 * fsfreeze(8)
 */
int filemap_fdatawait_range_keep_errors(struct address_space *mapping,
		loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)
{
	__filemap_fdatawait_range(mapping, start_byte, end_byte);
	return filemap_check_and_keep_errors(mapping);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_fdatawait_range_keep_errors);

/**
 * file_fdatawait_range - wait for writeback to complete
 * @file:		file pointing to address space structure to wait for
 * @start_byte:		offset in bytes where the range starts
 * @end_byte:		offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)
 *
 * Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the address space that file
 * refers to, in the given range and wait for all of them.  Check error
 * status of the address space vs. the file->f_wb_err cursor and return it.
 *
 * Since the error status of the file is advanced by this function,
 * callers are responsible for checking the return value and handling and/or
 * reporting the error.
 *
 * Return: error status of the address space vs. the file->f_wb_err cursor.
 */
int file_fdatawait_range(struct file *file, loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;

	__filemap_fdatawait_range(mapping, start_byte, end_byte);
	return file_check_and_advance_wb_err(file);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(file_fdatawait_range);

/**
 * filemap_fdatawait_keep_errors - wait for writeback without clearing errors
 * @mapping: address space structure to wait for
 *
 * Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the given address space
 * and wait for all of them.  Unlike filemap_fdatawait(), this function
 * does not clear error status of the address space.
 *
 * Use this function if callers don't handle errors themselves.  Expected
 * call sites are system-wide / filesystem-wide data flushers: e.g. sync(2),
 * fsfreeze(8)
 *
 * Return: error status of the address space.
 */
int filemap_fdatawait_keep_errors(struct address_space *mapping)
{
	__filemap_fdatawait_range(mapping, 0, LLONG_MAX);
	return filemap_check_and_keep_errors(mapping);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_fdatawait_keep_errors);

/* Returns true if writeback might be needed or already in progress. */
static bool mapping_needs_writeback(struct address_space *mapping)
{
	return mapping->nrpages;
}

bool filemap_range_has_writeback(struct address_space *mapping,
				 loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, start_byte >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	pgoff_t max = end_byte >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	struct folio *folio;

	if (end_byte < start_byte)
		return false;

	rcu_read_lock();
	xas_for_each(&xas, folio, max) {
		if (xas_retry(&xas, folio))
			continue;
		if (xa_is_value(folio))
			continue;
		if (folio_test_dirty(folio) || folio_test_locked(folio) ||
				folio_test_writeback(folio))
			break;
	}
	rcu_read_unlock();
	return folio != NULL;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(filemap_range_has_writeback);

/**
 * filemap_write_and_wait_range - write out & wait on a file range
 * @mapping:	the address_space for the pages
 * @lstart:	offset in bytes where the range starts
 * @lend:	offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)
 *
 * Write out and wait upon file offsets lstart->lend, inclusive.
 *
 * Note that @lend is inclusive (describes the last byte to be written) so
 * that this function can be used to write to the very end-of-file (end = -1).
 *
 * Return: error status of the address space.
 */
int filemap_write_and_wait_range(struct address_space *mapping,
				 loff_t lstart, loff_t lend)
{
	int err = 0, err2;

	if (lend < lstart)
		return 0;

	if (mapping_needs_writeback(mapping)) {
		err = __filemap_fdatawrite_range(mapping, lstart, lend,
						 WB_SYNC_ALL);
		/*
		 * Even if the above returned error, the pages may be
		 * written partially (e.g. -ENOSPC), so we wait for it.
		 * But the -EIO is special case, it may indicate the worst
		 * thing (e.g. bug) happened, so we avoid waiting for it.
		 */
		if (err != -EIO)
			__filemap_fdatawait_range(mapping, lstart, lend);
	}
	err2 = filemap_check_errors(mapping);
	if (!err)
		err = err2;
	return err;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_write_and_wait_range);

void __filemap_set_wb_err(struct address_space *mapping, int err)
{
	errseq_t eseq = errseq_set(&mapping->wb_err, err);

	trace_filemap_set_wb_err(mapping, eseq);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__filemap_set_wb_err);

/**
 * file_check_and_advance_wb_err - report wb error (if any) that was previously
 * 				   and advance wb_err to current one
 * @file: struct file on which the error is being reported
 *
 * When userland calls fsync (or something like nfsd does the equivalent), we
 * want to report any writeback errors that occurred since the last fsync (or
 * since the file was opened if there haven't been any).
 *
 * Grab the wb_err from the mapping. If it matches what we have in the file,
 * then just quickly return 0. The file is all caught up.
 *
 * If it doesn't match, then take the mapping value, set the "seen" flag in
 * it and try to swap it into place. If it works, or another task beat us
 * to it with the new value, then update the f_wb_err and return the error
 * portion. The error at this point must be reported via proper channels
 * (a'la fsync, or NFS COMMIT operation, etc.).
 *
 * While we handle mapping->wb_err with atomic operations, the f_wb_err
 * value is protected by the f_lock since we must ensure that it reflects
 * the latest value swapped in for this file descriptor.
 *
 * Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise.
 */
int file_check_and_advance_wb_err(struct file *file)
{
	int err = 0;
	errseq_t old = READ_ONCE(file->f_wb_err);
	struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;

	/* Locklessly handle the common case where nothing has changed */
	if (errseq_check(&mapping->wb_err, old)) {
		/* Something changed, must use slow path */
		spin_lock(&file->f_lock);
		old = file->f_wb_err;
		err = errseq_check_and_advance(&mapping->wb_err,
						&file->f_wb_err);
		trace_file_check_and_advance_wb_err(file, old);
		spin_unlock(&file->f_lock);
	}

	/*
	 * We're mostly using this function as a drop in replacement for
	 * filemap_check_errors. Clear AS_EIO/AS_ENOSPC to emulate the effect
	 * that the legacy code would have had on these flags.
	 */
	clear_bit(AS_EIO, &mapping->flags);
	clear_bit(AS_ENOSPC, &mapping->flags);
	return err;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(file_check_and_advance_wb_err);

/**
 * file_write_and_wait_range - write out & wait on a file range
 * @file:	file pointing to address_space with pages
 * @lstart:	offset in bytes where the range starts
 * @lend:	offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)
 *
 * Write out and wait upon file offsets lstart->lend, inclusive.
 *
 * Note that @lend is inclusive (describes the last byte to be written) so
 * that this function can be used to write to the very end-of-file (end = -1).
 *
 * After writing out and waiting on the data, we check and advance the
 * f_wb_err cursor to the latest value, and return any errors detected there.
 *
 * Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise.
 */
int file_write_and_wait_range(struct file *file, loff_t lstart, loff_t lend)
{
	int err = 0, err2;
	struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;

	if (lend < lstart)
		return 0;

	if (mapping_needs_writeback(mapping)) {
		err = __filemap_fdatawrite_range(mapping, lstart, lend,
						 WB_SYNC_ALL);
		/* See comment of filemap_write_and_wait() */
		if (err != -EIO)
			__filemap_fdatawait_range(mapping, lstart, lend);
	}
	err2 = file_check_and_advance_wb_err(file);
	if (!err)
		err = err2;
	return err;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(file_write_and_wait_range);

/**
 * replace_page_cache_folio - replace a pagecache folio with a new one
 * @old:	folio to be replaced
 * @new:	folio to replace with
 *
 * This function replaces a folio in the pagecache with a new one.  On
 * success it acquires the pagecache reference for the new folio and
 * drops it for the old folio.  Both the old and new folios must be
 * locked.  This function does not add the new folio to the LRU, the
 * caller must do that.
 *
 * The remove + add is atomic.  This function cannot fail.
 */
void replace_page_cache_folio(struct folio *old, struct folio *new)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = old->mapping;
	void (*free_folio)(struct folio *) = mapping->a_ops->free_folio;
	pgoff_t offset = old->index;
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, offset);

	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_test_locked(old), old);
	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_test_locked(new), new);
	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(new->mapping, new);

	folio_get(new);
	new->mapping = mapping;
	new->index = offset;

	mem_cgroup_migrate(old, new);

	xas_lock_irq(&xas);
	xas_store(&xas, new);

	old->mapping = NULL;
	/* hugetlb pages do not participate in page cache accounting. */
	if (!folio_test_hugetlb(old))
		__lruvec_stat_sub_folio(old, NR_FILE_PAGES);
	if (!folio_test_hugetlb(new))
		__lruvec_stat_add_folio(new, NR_FILE_PAGES);
	if (folio_test_swapbacked(old))
		__lruvec_stat_sub_folio(old, NR_SHMEM);
	if (folio_test_swapbacked(new))
		__lruvec_stat_add_folio(new, NR_SHMEM);
	xas_unlock_irq(&xas);
	if (free_folio)
		free_folio(old);
	folio_put(old);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(replace_page_cache_folio);

noinline int __filemap_add_folio(struct address_space *mapping,
		struct folio *folio, pgoff_t index, gfp_t gfp, void **shadowp)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, index);
	int huge = folio_test_hugetlb(folio);
	bool charged = false;
	long nr = 1;

	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_test_locked(folio), folio);
	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(folio_test_swapbacked(folio), folio);
	mapping_set_update(&xas, mapping);

	if (!huge) {
		int error = mem_cgroup_charge(folio, NULL, gfp);
		VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(index & (folio_nr_pages(folio) - 1), folio);
		if (error)
			return error;
		charged = true;
		xas_set_order(&xas, index, folio_order(folio));
		nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
	}

	gfp &= GFP_RECLAIM_MASK;
	folio_ref_add(folio, nr);
	folio->mapping = mapping;
	folio->index = xas.xa_index;

	do {
		unsigned int order = xa_get_order(xas.xa, xas.xa_index);
		void *entry, *old = NULL;

		if (order > folio_order(folio))
			xas_split_alloc(&xas, xa_load(xas.xa, xas.xa_index),
					order, gfp);
		xas_lock_irq(&xas);
		xas_for_each_conflict(&xas, entry) {
			old = entry;
			if (!xa_is_value(entry)) {
				xas_set_err(&xas, -EEXIST);
				goto unlock;
			}
		}

		if (old) {
			if (shadowp)
				*shadowp = old;
			/* entry may have been split before we acquired lock */
			order = xa_get_order(xas.xa, xas.xa_index);
			if (order > folio_order(folio)) {
				/* How to handle large swap entries? */
				BUG_ON(shmem_mapping(mapping));
				xas_split(&xas, old, order);
				xas_reset(&xas);
			}
		}

		xas_store(&xas, folio);
		if (xas_error(&xas))
			goto unlock;

		mapping->nrpages += nr;

		/* hugetlb pages do not participate in page cache accounting */
		if (!huge) {
			__lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_FILE_PAGES, nr);
			if (folio_test_pmd_mappable(folio))
				__lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio,
						NR_FILE_THPS, nr);
		}
unlock:
		xas_unlock_irq(&xas);
	} while (xas_nomem(&xas, gfp));

	if (xas_error(&xas))
		goto error;

	trace_mm_filemap_add_to_page_cache(folio);
	return 0;
error:
	if (charged)
		mem_cgroup_uncharge(folio);
	folio->mapping = NULL;
	/* Leave page->index set: truncation relies upon it */
	folio_put_refs(folio, nr);
	return xas_error(&xas);
}
ALLOW_ERROR_INJECTION(__filemap_add_folio, ERRNO);

int filemap_add_folio(struct address_space *mapping, struct folio *folio,
				pgoff_t index, gfp_t gfp)
{
	void *shadow = NULL;
	int ret;

	__folio_set_locked(folio);
	ret = __filemap_add_folio(mapping, folio, index, gfp, &shadow);
	if (unlikely(ret))
		__folio_clear_locked(folio);
	else {
		/*
		 * The folio might have been evicted from cache only
		 * recently, in which case it should be activated like
		 * any other repeatedly accessed folio.
		 * The exception is folios getting rewritten; evicting other
		 * data from the working set, only to cache data that will
		 * get overwritten with something else, is a waste of memory.
		 */
		WARN_ON_ONCE(folio_test_active(folio));
		if (!(gfp & __GFP_WRITE) && shadow)
			workingset_refault(folio, shadow);
		folio_add_lru(folio);
	}
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(filemap_add_folio);

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
struct folio *filemap_alloc_folio(gfp_t gfp, unsigned int order)
{
	int n;
	struct folio *folio;

	if (cpuset_do_page_mem_spread()) {
		unsigned int cpuset_mems_cookie;
		do {
			cpuset_mems_cookie = read_mems_allowed_begin();
			n = cpuset_mem_spread_node();
			folio = __folio_alloc_node(gfp, order, n);
		} while (!folio && read_mems_allowed_retry(cpuset_mems_cookie));

		return folio;
	}
	return folio_alloc(gfp, order);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_alloc_folio);
#endif

/*
 * filemap_invalidate_lock_two - lock invalidate_lock for two mappings
 *
 * Lock exclusively invalidate_lock of any passed mapping that is not NULL.
 *
 * @mapping1: the first mapping to lock
 * @mapping2: the second mapping to lock
 */
void filemap_invalidate_lock_two(struct address_space *mapping1,
				 struct address_space *mapping2)
{
	if (mapping1 > mapping2)
		swap(mapping1, mapping2);
	if (mapping1)
		down_write(&mapping1->invalidate_lock);
	if (mapping2 && mapping1 != mapping2)
		down_write_nested(&mapping2->invalidate_lock, 1);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_invalidate_lock_two);

/*
 * filemap_invalidate_unlock_two - unlock invalidate_lock for two mappings
 *
 * Unlock exclusive invalidate_lock of any passed mapping that is not NULL.
 *
 * @mapping1: the first mapping to unlock
 * @mapping2: the second mapping to unlock
 */
void filemap_invalidate_unlock_two(struct address_space *mapping1,
				   struct address_space *mapping2)
{
	if (mapping1)
		up_write(&mapping1->invalidate_lock);
	if (mapping2 && mapping1 != mapping2)
		up_write(&mapping2->invalidate_lock);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_invalidate_unlock_two);

/*
 * In order to wait for pages to become available there must be
 * waitqueues associated with pages. By using a hash table of
 * waitqueues where the bucket discipline is to maintain all
 * waiters on the same queue and wake all when any of the pages
 * become available, and for the woken contexts to check to be
 * sure the appropriate page became available, this saves space
 * at a cost of "thundering herd" phenomena during rare hash
 * collisions.
 */
#define PAGE_WAIT_TABLE_BITS 8
#define PAGE_WAIT_TABLE_SIZE (1 << PAGE_WAIT_TABLE_BITS)
static wait_queue_head_t folio_wait_table[PAGE_WAIT_TABLE_SIZE] __cacheline_aligned;

static wait_queue_head_t *folio_waitqueue(struct folio *folio)
{
	return &folio_wait_table[hash_ptr(folio, PAGE_WAIT_TABLE_BITS)];
}

void __init pagecache_init(void)
{
	int i;

	for (i = 0; i < PAGE_WAIT_TABLE_SIZE; i++)
		init_waitqueue_head(&folio_wait_table[i]);

	page_writeback_init();
}

/*
 * The page wait code treats the "wait->flags" somewhat unusually, because
 * we have multiple different kinds of waits, not just the usual "exclusive"
 * one.
 *
 * We have:
 *
 *  (a) no special bits set:
 *
 *	We're just waiting for the bit to be released, and when a waker
 *	calls the wakeup function, we set WQ_FLAG_WOKEN and wake it up,
 *	and remove it from the wait queue.
 *
 *	Simple and straightforward.
 *
 *  (b) WQ_FLAG_EXCLUSIVE:
 *
 *	The waiter is waiting to get the lock, and only one waiter should
 *	be woken up to avoid any thundering herd behavior. We'll set the
 *	WQ_FLAG_WOKEN bit, wake it up, and remove it from the wait queue.
 *
 *	This is the traditional exclusive wait.
 *
 *  (c) WQ_FLAG_EXCLUSIVE | WQ_FLAG_CUSTOM:
 *
 *	The waiter is waiting to get the bit, and additionally wants the
 *	lock to be transferred to it for fair lock behavior. If the lock
 *	cannot be taken, we stop walking the wait queue without waking
 *	the waiter.
 *
 *	This is the "fair lock handoff" case, and in addition to setting
 *	WQ_FLAG_WOKEN, we set WQ_FLAG_DONE to let the waiter easily see
 *	that it now has the lock.
 */
static int wake_page_function(wait_queue_entry_t *wait, unsigned mode, int sync, void *arg)
{
	unsigned int flags;
	struct wait_page_key *key = arg;
	struct wait_page_queue *wait_page
		= container_of(wait, struct wait_page_queue, wait);

	if (!wake_page_match(wait_page, key))
		return 0;

	/*
	 * If it's a lock handoff wait, we get the bit for it, and
	 * stop walking (and do not wake it up) if we can't.
	 */
	flags = wait->flags;
	if (flags & WQ_FLAG_EXCLUSIVE) {
		if (test_bit(key->bit_nr, &key->folio->flags))
			return -1;
		if (flags & WQ_FLAG_CUSTOM) {
			if (test_and_set_bit(key->bit_nr, &key->folio->flags))
				return -1;
			flags |= WQ_FLAG_DONE;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * We are holding the wait-queue lock, but the waiter that
	 * is waiting for this will be checking the flags without
	 * any locking.
	 *
	 * So update the flags atomically, and wake up the waiter
	 * afterwards to avoid any races. This store-release pairs
	 * with the load-acquire in folio_wait_bit_common().
	 */
	smp_store_release(&wait->flags, flags | WQ_FLAG_WOKEN);
	wake_up_state(wait->private, mode);

	/*
	 * Ok, we have successfully done what we're waiting for,
	 * and we can unconditionally remove the wait entry.
	 *
	 * Note that this pairs with the "finish_wait()" in the
	 * waiter, and has to be the absolute last thing we do.
	 * After this list_del_init(&wait->entry) the wait entry
	 * might be de-allocated and the process might even have
	 * exited.
	 */
	list_del_init_careful(&wait->entry);
	return (flags & WQ_FLAG_EXCLUSIVE) != 0;
}

static void folio_wake_bit(struct folio *folio, int bit_nr)
{
	wait_queue_head_t *q = folio_waitqueue(folio);
	struct wait_page_key key;
	unsigned long flags;
	wait_queue_entry_t bookmark;

	key.folio = folio;
	key.bit_nr = bit_nr;
	key.page_match = 0;

	bookmark.flags = 0;
	bookmark.private = NULL;
	bookmark.func = NULL;
	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bookmark.entry);

	spin_lock_irqsave(&q->lock, flags);
	__wake_up_locked_key_bookmark(q, TASK_NORMAL, &key, &bookmark);

	while (bookmark.flags & WQ_FLAG_BOOKMARK) {
		/*
		 * Take a breather from holding the lock,
		 * allow pages that finish wake up asynchronously
		 * to acquire the lock and remove themselves
		 * from wait queue
		 */
		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&q->lock, flags);
		cpu_relax();
		spin_lock_irqsave(&q->lock, flags);
		__wake_up_locked_key_bookmark(q, TASK_NORMAL, &key, &bookmark);
	}

	/*
	 * It's possible to miss clearing waiters here, when we woke our page
	 * waiters, but the hashed waitqueue has waiters for other pages on it.
	 * That's okay, it's a rare case. The next waker will clear it.
	 *
	 * Note that, depending on the page pool (buddy, hugetlb, ZONE_DEVICE,
	 * other), the flag may be cleared in the course of freeing the page;
	 * but that is not required for correctness.
	 */
	if (!waitqueue_active(q) || !key.page_match)
		folio_clear_waiters(folio);

	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&q->lock, flags);
}

static void folio_wake(struct folio *folio, int bit)
{
	if (!folio_test_waiters(folio))
		return;
	folio_wake_bit(folio, bit);
}

/*
 * A choice of three behaviors for folio_wait_bit_common():
 */
enum behavior {
	EXCLUSIVE,	/* Hold ref to page and take the bit when woken, like
			 * __folio_lock() waiting on then setting PG_locked.
			 */
	SHARED,		/* Hold ref to page and check the bit when woken, like
			 * folio_wait_writeback() waiting on PG_writeback.
			 */
	DROP,		/* Drop ref to page before wait, no check when woken,
			 * like folio_put_wait_locked() on PG_locked.
			 */
};

/*
 * Attempt to check (or get) the folio flag, and mark us done
 * if successful.
 */
static inline bool folio_trylock_flag(struct folio *folio, int bit_nr,
					struct wait_queue_entry *wait)
{
	if (wait->flags & WQ_FLAG_EXCLUSIVE) {
		if (test_and_set_bit(bit_nr, &folio->flags))
			return false;
	} else if (test_bit(bit_nr, &folio->flags))
		return false;

	wait->flags |= WQ_FLAG_WOKEN | WQ_FLAG_DONE;
	return true;
}

/* How many times do we accept lock stealing from under a waiter? */
int sysctl_page_lock_unfairness = 5;

static inline int folio_wait_bit_common(struct folio *folio, int bit_nr,
		int state, enum behavior behavior)
{
	wait_queue_head_t *q = folio_waitqueue(folio);
	int unfairness = sysctl_page_lock_unfairness;
	struct wait_page_queue wait_page;
	wait_queue_entry_t *wait = &wait_page.wait;
	bool thrashing = false;
	unsigned long pflags;
	bool in_thrashing;

	if (bit_nr == PG_locked &&
	    !folio_test_uptodate(folio) && folio_test_workingset(folio)) {
		delayacct_thrashing_start(&in_thrashing);
		psi_memstall_enter(&pflags);
		thrashing = true;
	}

	init_wait(wait);
	wait->func = wake_page_function;
	wait_page.folio = folio;
	wait_page.bit_nr = bit_nr;

repeat:
	wait->flags = 0;
	if (behavior == EXCLUSIVE) {
		wait->flags = WQ_FLAG_EXCLUSIVE;
		if (--unfairness < 0)
			wait->flags |= WQ_FLAG_CUSTOM;
	}

	/*
	 * Do one last check whether we can get the
	 * page bit synchronously.
	 *
	 * Do the folio_set_waiters() marking before that
	 * to let any waker we _just_ missed know they
	 * need to wake us up (otherwise they'll never
	 * even go to the slow case that looks at the
	 * page queue), and add ourselves to the wait
	 * queue if we need to sleep.
	 *
	 * This part needs to be done under the queue
	 * lock to avoid races.
	 */
	spin_lock_irq(&q->lock);
	folio_set_waiters(folio);
	if (!folio_trylock_flag(folio, bit_nr, wait))
		__add_wait_queue_entry_tail(q, wait);
	spin_unlock_irq(&q->lock);

	/*
	 * From now on, all the logic will be based on
	 * the WQ_FLAG_WOKEN and WQ_FLAG_DONE flag, to
	 * see whether the page bit testing has already
	 * been done by the wake function.
	 *
	 * We can drop our reference to the folio.
	 */
	if (behavior == DROP)
		folio_put(folio);

	/*
	 * Note that until the "finish_wait()", or until
	 * we see the WQ_FLAG_WOKEN flag, we need to
	 * be very careful with the 'wait->flags', because
	 * we may race with a waker that sets them.
	 */
	for (;;) {
		unsigned int flags;

		set_current_state(state);

		/* Loop until we've been woken or interrupted */
		flags = smp_load_acquire(&wait->flags);
		if (!(flags & WQ_FLAG_WOKEN)) {
			if (signal_pending_state(state, current))
				break;

			io_schedule();
			continue;
		}

		/* If we were non-exclusive, we're done */
		if (behavior != EXCLUSIVE)
			break;

		/* If the waker got the lock for us, we're done */
		if (flags & WQ_FLAG_DONE)
			break;

		/*
		 * Otherwise, if we're getting the lock, we need to
		 * try to get it ourselves.
		 *
		 * And if that fails, we'll have to retry this all.
		 */
		if (unlikely(test_and_set_bit(bit_nr, folio_flags(folio, 0))))
			goto repeat;

		wait->flags |= WQ_FLAG_DONE;
		break;
	}

	/*
	 * If a signal happened, this 'finish_wait()' may remove the last
	 * waiter from the wait-queues, but the folio waiters bit will remain
	 * set. That's ok. The next wakeup will take care of it, and trying
	 * to do it here would be difficult and prone to races.
	 */
	finish_wait(q, wait);

	if (thrashing) {
		delayacct_thrashing_end(&in_thrashing);
		psi_memstall_leave(&pflags);
	}

	/*
	 * NOTE! The wait->flags weren't stable until we've done the
	 * 'finish_wait()', and we could have exited the loop above due
	 * to a signal, and had a wakeup event happen after the signal
	 * test but before the 'finish_wait()'.
	 *
	 * So only after the finish_wait() can we reliably determine
	 * if we got woken up or not, so we can now figure out the final
	 * return value based on that state without races.
	 *
	 * Also note that WQ_FLAG_WOKEN is sufficient for a non-exclusive
	 * waiter, but an exclusive one requires WQ_FLAG_DONE.
	 */
	if (behavior == EXCLUSIVE)
		return wait->flags & WQ_FLAG_DONE ? 0 : -EINTR;

	return wait->flags & WQ_FLAG_WOKEN ? 0 : -EINTR;
}

#ifdef CONFIG_MIGRATION
/**
 * migration_entry_wait_on_locked - Wait for a migration entry to be removed
 * @entry: migration swap entry.
 * @ptl: already locked ptl. This function will drop the lock.
 *
 * Wait for a migration entry referencing the given page to be removed. This is
 * equivalent to put_and_wait_on_page_locked(page, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE) except
 * this can be called without taking a reference on the page. Instead this
 * should be called while holding the ptl for the migration entry referencing
 * the page.
 *
 * Returns after unlocking the ptl.
 *
 * This follows the same logic as folio_wait_bit_common() so see the comments
 * there.
 */
void migration_entry_wait_on_locked(swp_entry_t entry, spinlock_t *ptl)
	__releases(ptl)
{
	struct wait_page_queue wait_page;
	wait_queue_entry_t *wait = &wait_page.wait;
	bool thrashing = false;
	unsigned long pflags;
	bool in_thrashing;
	wait_queue_head_t *q;
	struct folio *folio = page_folio(pfn_swap_entry_to_page(entry));

	q = folio_waitqueue(folio);
	if (!folio_test_uptodate(folio) && folio_test_workingset(folio)) {
		delayacct_thrashing_start(&in_thrashing);
		psi_memstall_enter(&pflags);
		thrashing = true;
	}

	init_wait(wait);
	wait->func = wake_page_function;
	wait_page.folio = folio;
	wait_page.bit_nr = PG_locked;
	wait->flags = 0;

	spin_lock_irq(&q->lock);
	folio_set_waiters(folio);
	if (!folio_trylock_flag(folio, PG_locked, wait))
		__add_wait_queue_entry_tail(q, wait);
	spin_unlock_irq(&q->lock);

	/*
	 * If a migration entry exists for the page the migration path must hold
	 * a valid reference to the page, and it must take the ptl to remove the
	 * migration entry. So the page is valid until the ptl is dropped.
	 */
	spin_unlock(ptl);

	for (;;) {
		unsigned int flags;

		set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);

		/* Loop until we've been woken or interrupted */
		flags = smp_load_acquire(&wait->flags);
		if (!(flags & WQ_FLAG_WOKEN)) {
			if (signal_pending_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE, current))
				break;

			io_schedule();
			continue;
		}
		break;
	}

	finish_wait(q, wait);

	if (thrashing) {
		delayacct_thrashing_end(&in_thrashing);
		psi_memstall_leave(&pflags);
	}
}
#endif

void folio_wait_bit(struct folio *folio, int bit_nr)
{
	folio_wait_bit_common(folio, bit_nr, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE, SHARED);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_wait_bit);

int folio_wait_bit_killable(struct folio *folio, int bit_nr)
{
	return folio_wait_bit_common(folio, bit_nr, TASK_KILLABLE, SHARED);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_wait_bit_killable);

/**
 * folio_put_wait_locked - Drop a reference and wait for it to be unlocked
 * @folio: The folio to wait for.
 * @state: The sleep state (TASK_KILLABLE, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE, etc).
 *
 * The caller should hold a reference on @folio.  They expect the page to
 * become unlocked relatively soon, but do not wish to hold up migration
 * (for example) by holding the reference while waiting for the folio to
 * come unlocked.  After this function returns, the caller should not
 * dereference @folio.
 *
 * Return: 0 if the folio was unlocked or -EINTR if interrupted by a signal.
 */
static int folio_put_wait_locked(struct folio *folio, int state)
{
	return folio_wait_bit_common(folio, PG_locked, state, DROP);
}

/**
 * folio_add_wait_queue - Add an arbitrary waiter to a folio's wait queue
 * @folio: Folio defining the wait queue of interest
 * @waiter: Waiter to add to the queue
 *
 * Add an arbitrary @waiter to the wait queue for the nominated @folio.
 */
void folio_add_wait_queue(struct folio *folio, wait_queue_entry_t *waiter)
{
	wait_queue_head_t *q = folio_waitqueue(folio);
	unsigned long flags;

	spin_lock_irqsave(&q->lock, flags);
	__add_wait_queue_entry_tail(q, waiter);
	folio_set_waiters(folio);
	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&q->lock, flags);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(folio_add_wait_queue);

#ifndef clear_bit_unlock_is_negative_byte

/*
 * PG_waiters is the high bit in the same byte as PG_lock.
 *
 * On x86 (and on many other architectures), we can clear PG_lock and
 * test the sign bit at the same time. But if the architecture does
 * not support that special operation, we just do this all by hand
 * instead.
 *
 * The read of PG_waiters has to be after (or concurrently with) PG_locked
 * being cleared, but a memory barrier should be unnecessary since it is
 * in the same byte as PG_locked.
 */
static inline bool clear_bit_unlock_is_negative_byte(long nr, volatile void *mem)
{
	clear_bit_unlock(nr, mem);
	/* smp_mb__after_atomic(); */
	return test_bit(PG_waiters, mem);
}

#endif

/**
 * folio_unlock - Unlock a locked folio.
 * @folio: The folio.
 *
 * Unlocks the folio and wakes up any thread sleeping on the page lock.
 *
 * Context: May be called from interrupt or process context.  May not be
 * called from NMI context.
 */
void folio_unlock(struct folio *folio)
{
	/* Bit 7 allows x86 to check the byte's sign bit */
	BUILD_BUG_ON(PG_waiters != 7);
	BUILD_BUG_ON(PG_locked > 7);
	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_test_locked(folio), folio);
	if (clear_bit_unlock_is_negative_byte(PG_locked, folio_flags(folio, 0)))
		folio_wake_bit(folio, PG_locked);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_unlock);

/**
 * folio_end_private_2 - Clear PG_private_2 and wake any waiters.
 * @folio: The folio.
 *
 * Clear the PG_private_2 bit on a folio and wake up any sleepers waiting for
 * it.  The folio reference held for PG_private_2 being set is released.
 *
 * This is, for example, used when a netfs folio is being written to a local
 * disk cache, thereby allowing writes to the cache for the same folio to be
 * serialised.
 */
void folio_end_private_2(struct folio *folio)
{
	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_test_private_2(folio), folio);
	clear_bit_unlock(PG_private_2, folio_flags(folio, 0));
	folio_wake_bit(folio, PG_private_2);
	folio_put(folio);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_end_private_2);

/**
 * folio_wait_private_2 - Wait for PG_private_2 to be cleared on a folio.
 * @folio: The folio to wait on.
 *
 * Wait for PG_private_2 (aka PG_fscache) to be cleared on a folio.
 */
void folio_wait_private_2(struct folio *folio)
{
	while (folio_test_private_2(folio))
		folio_wait_bit(folio, PG_private_2);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_wait_private_2);

/**
 * folio_wait_private_2_killable - Wait for PG_private_2 to be cleared on a folio.
 * @folio: The folio to wait on.
 *
 * Wait for PG_private_2 (aka PG_fscache) to be cleared on a folio or until a
 * fatal signal is received by the calling task.
 *
 * Return:
 * - 0 if successful.
 * - -EINTR if a fatal signal was encountered.
 */
int folio_wait_private_2_killable(struct folio *folio)
{
	int ret = 0;

	while (folio_test_private_2(folio)) {
		ret = folio_wait_bit_killable(folio, PG_private_2);
		if (ret < 0)
			break;
	}

	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_wait_private_2_killable);

/**
 * folio_end_writeback - End writeback against a folio.
 * @folio: The folio.
 */
void folio_end_writeback(struct folio *folio)
{
	/*
	 * folio_test_clear_reclaim() could be used here but it is an
	 * atomic operation and overkill in this particular case. Failing
	 * to shuffle a folio marked for immediate reclaim is too mild
	 * a gain to justify taking an atomic operation penalty at the
	 * end of every folio writeback.
	 */
	if (folio_test_reclaim(folio)) {
		folio_clear_reclaim(folio);
		folio_rotate_reclaimable(folio);
	}

	/*
	 * Writeback does not hold a folio reference of its own, relying
	 * on truncation to wait for the clearing of PG_writeback.
	 * But here we must make sure that the folio is not freed and
	 * reused before the folio_wake().
	 */
	folio_get(folio);
	if (!__folio_end_writeback(folio))
		BUG();

	smp_mb__after_atomic();
	folio_wake(folio, PG_writeback);
	acct_reclaim_writeback(folio);
	folio_put(folio);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_end_writeback);

/**
 * __folio_lock - Get a lock on the folio, assuming we need to sleep to get it.
 * @folio: The folio to lock
 */
void __folio_lock(struct folio *folio)
{
	folio_wait_bit_common(folio, PG_locked, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE,
				EXCLUSIVE);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__folio_lock);

int __folio_lock_killable(struct folio *folio)
{
	return folio_wait_bit_common(folio, PG_locked, TASK_KILLABLE,
					EXCLUSIVE);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(__folio_lock_killable);

static int __folio_lock_async(struct folio *folio, struct wait_page_queue *wait)
{
	struct wait_queue_head *q = folio_waitqueue(folio);
	int ret = 0;

	wait->folio = folio;
	wait->bit_nr = PG_locked;

	spin_lock_irq(&q->lock);
	__add_wait_queue_entry_tail(q, &wait->wait);
	folio_set_waiters(folio);
	ret = !folio_trylock(folio);
	/*
	 * If we were successful now, we know we're still on the
	 * waitqueue as we're still under the lock. This means it's
	 * safe to remove and return success, we know the callback
	 * isn't going to trigger.
	 */
	if (!ret)
		__remove_wait_queue(q, &wait->wait);
	else
		ret = -EIOCBQUEUED;
	spin_unlock_irq(&q->lock);
	return ret;
}

/*
 * Return values:
 * true - folio is locked; mmap_lock is still held.
 * false - folio is not locked.
 *     mmap_lock has been released (mmap_read_unlock(), unless flags had both
 *     FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY and FAULT_FLAG_RETRY_NOWAIT set, in
 *     which case mmap_lock is still held.
 *
 * If neither ALLOW_RETRY nor KILLABLE are set, will always return true
 * with the folio locked and the mmap_lock unperturbed.
 */
bool __folio_lock_or_retry(struct folio *folio, struct mm_struct *mm,
			 unsigned int flags)
{
	if (fault_flag_allow_retry_first(flags)) {
		/*
		 * CAUTION! In this case, mmap_lock is not released
		 * even though return 0.
		 */
		if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_RETRY_NOWAIT)
			return false;

		mmap_read_unlock(mm);
		if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_KILLABLE)
			folio_wait_locked_killable(folio);
		else
			folio_wait_locked(folio);
		return false;
	}
	if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_KILLABLE) {
		bool ret;

		ret = __folio_lock_killable(folio);
		if (ret) {
			mmap_read_unlock(mm);
			return false;
		}
	} else {
		__folio_lock(folio);
	}

	return true;
}

/**
 * page_cache_next_miss() - Find the next gap in the page cache.
 * @mapping: Mapping.
 * @index: Index.
 * @max_scan: Maximum range to search.
 *
 * Search the range [index, min(index + max_scan - 1, ULONG_MAX)] for the
 * gap with the lowest index.
 *
 * This function may be called under the rcu_read_lock.  However, this will
 * not atomically search a snapshot of the cache at a single point in time.
 * For example, if a gap is created at index 5, then subsequently a gap is
 * created at index 10, page_cache_next_miss covering both indices may
 * return 10 if called under the rcu_read_lock.
 *
 * Return: The index of the gap if found, otherwise an index outside the
 * range specified (in which case 'return - index >= max_scan' will be true).
 * In the rare case of index wrap-around, 0 will be returned.
 */
pgoff_t page_cache_next_miss(struct address_space *mapping,
			     pgoff_t index, unsigned long max_scan)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, index);

	while (max_scan--) {
		void *entry = xas_next(&xas);
		if (!entry || xa_is_value(entry))
			break;
		if (xas.xa_index == 0)
			break;
	}

	return xas.xa_index;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_cache_next_miss);

/**
 * page_cache_prev_miss() - Find the previous gap in the page cache.
 * @mapping: Mapping.
 * @index: Index.
 * @max_scan: Maximum range to search.
 *
 * Search the range [max(index - max_scan + 1, 0), index] for the
 * gap with the highest index.
 *
 * This function may be called under the rcu_read_lock.  However, this will
 * not atomically search a snapshot of the cache at a single point in time.
 * For example, if a gap is created at index 10, then subsequently a gap is
 * created at index 5, page_cache_prev_miss() covering both indices may
 * return 5 if called under the rcu_read_lock.
 *
 * Return: The index of the gap if found, otherwise an index outside the
 * range specified (in which case 'index - return >= max_scan' will be true).
 * In the rare case of wrap-around, ULONG_MAX will be returned.
 */
pgoff_t page_cache_prev_miss(struct address_space *mapping,
			     pgoff_t index, unsigned long max_scan)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, index);

	while (max_scan--) {
		void *entry = xas_prev(&xas);
		if (!entry || xa_is_value(entry))
			break;
		if (xas.xa_index == ULONG_MAX)
			break;
	}

	return xas.xa_index;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_cache_prev_miss);

/*
 * Lockless page cache protocol:
 * On the lookup side:
 * 1. Load the folio from i_pages
 * 2. Increment the refcount if it's not zero
 * 3. If the folio is not found by xas_reload(), put the refcount and retry
 *
 * On the removal side:
 * A. Freeze the page (by zeroing the refcount if nobody else has a reference)
 * B. Remove the page from i_pages
 * C. Return the page to the page allocator
 *
 * This means that any page may have its reference count temporarily
 * increased by a speculative page cache (or fast GUP) lookup as it can
 * be allocated by another user before the RCU grace period expires.
 * Because the refcount temporarily acquired here may end up being the
 * last refcount on the page, any page allocation must be freeable by
 * folio_put().
 */

/*
 * filemap_get_entry - Get a page cache entry.
 * @mapping: the address_space to search
 * @index: The page cache index.
 *
 * Looks up the page cache entry at @mapping & @index.  If it is a folio,
 * it is returned with an increased refcount.  If it is a shadow entry
 * of a previously evicted folio, or a swap entry from shmem/tmpfs,
 * it is returned without further action.
 *
 * Return: The folio, swap or shadow entry, %NULL if nothing is found.
 */
void *filemap_get_entry(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, index);
	struct folio *folio;

	rcu_read_lock();
repeat:
	xas_reset(&xas);
	folio = xas_load(&xas);
	if (xas_retry(&xas, folio))
		goto repeat;
	/*
	 * A shadow entry of a recently evicted page, or a swap entry from
	 * shmem/tmpfs.  Return it without attempting to raise page count.
	 */
	if (!folio || xa_is_value(folio))
		goto out;

	if (!folio_try_get_rcu(folio))
		goto repeat;

	if (unlikely(folio != xas_reload(&xas))) {
		folio_put(folio);
		goto repeat;
	}
out:
	rcu_read_unlock();

	return folio;
}

/**
 * __filemap_get_folio - Find and get a reference to a folio.
 * @mapping: The address_space to search.
 * @index: The page index.
 * @fgp_flags: %FGP flags modify how the folio is returned.
 * @gfp: Memory allocation flags to use if %FGP_CREAT is specified.
 *
 * Looks up the page cache entry at @mapping & @index.
 *
 * @fgp_flags can be zero or more of these flags:
 *
 * * %FGP_ACCESSED - The folio will be marked accessed.
 * * %FGP_LOCK - The folio is returned locked.
 * * %FGP_CREAT - If no page is present then a new page is allocated using
 *   @gfp and added to the page cache and the VM's LRU list.
 *   The page is returned locked and with an increased refcount.
 * * %FGP_FOR_MMAP - The caller wants to do its own locking dance if the
 *   page is already in cache.  If the page was allocated, unlock it before
 *   returning so the caller can do the same dance.
 * * %FGP_WRITE - The page will be written to by the caller.
 * * %FGP_NOFS - __GFP_FS will get cleared in gfp.
 * * %FGP_NOWAIT - Don't get blocked by page lock.
 * * %FGP_STABLE - Wait for the folio to be stable (finished writeback)
 *
 * If %FGP_LOCK or %FGP_CREAT are specified then the function may sleep even
 * if the %GFP flags specified for %FGP_CREAT are atomic.
 *
 * If there is a page cache page, it is returned with an increased refcount.
 *
 * Return: The found folio or an ERR_PTR() otherwise.
 */
struct folio *__filemap_get_folio(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index,
		int fgp_flags, gfp_t gfp)
{
	struct folio *folio;

repeat:
	folio = filemap_get_entry(mapping, index);
	if (xa_is_value(folio))
		folio = NULL;
	if (!folio)
		goto no_page;

	if (fgp_flags & FGP_LOCK) {
		if (fgp_flags & FGP_NOWAIT) {
			if (!folio_trylock(folio)) {
				folio_put(folio);
				return ERR_PTR(-EAGAIN);
			}
		} else {
			folio_lock(folio);
		}

		/* Has the page been truncated? */
		if (unlikely(folio->mapping != mapping)) {
			folio_unlock(folio);
			folio_put(folio);
			goto repeat;
		}
		VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_contains(folio, index), folio);
	}

	if (fgp_flags & FGP_ACCESSED)
		folio_mark_accessed(folio);
	else if (fgp_flags & FGP_WRITE) {
		/* Clear idle flag for buffer write */
		if (folio_test_idle(folio))
			folio_clear_idle(folio);
	}

	if (fgp_flags & FGP_STABLE)
		folio_wait_stable(folio);
no_page:
	if (!folio && (fgp_flags & FGP_CREAT)) {
		int err;
		if ((fgp_flags & FGP_WRITE) && mapping_can_writeback(mapping))
			gfp |= __GFP_WRITE;
		if (fgp_flags & FGP_NOFS)
			gfp &= ~__GFP_FS;
		if (fgp_flags & FGP_NOWAIT) {
			gfp &= ~GFP_KERNEL;
			gfp |= GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_NOWARN;
		}

		folio = filemap_alloc_folio(gfp, 0);
		if (!folio)
			return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);

		if (WARN_ON_ONCE(!(fgp_flags & (FGP_LOCK | FGP_FOR_MMAP))))
			fgp_flags |= FGP_LOCK;

		/* Init accessed so avoid atomic mark_page_accessed later */
		if (fgp_flags & FGP_ACCESSED)
			__folio_set_referenced(folio);

		err = filemap_add_folio(mapping, folio, index, gfp);
		if (unlikely(err)) {
			folio_put(folio);
			folio = NULL;
			if (err == -EEXIST)
				goto repeat;
		}

		/*
		 * filemap_add_folio locks the page, and for mmap
		 * we expect an unlocked page.
		 */
		if (folio && (fgp_flags & FGP_FOR_MMAP))
			folio_unlock(folio);
	}

	if (!folio)
		return ERR_PTR(-ENOENT);
	return folio;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__filemap_get_folio);

static inline struct folio *find_get_entry(struct xa_state *xas, pgoff_t max,
		xa_mark_t mark)
{
	struct folio *folio;

retry:
	if (mark == XA_PRESENT)
		folio = xas_find(xas, max);
	else
		folio = xas_find_marked(xas, max, mark);

	if (xas_retry(xas, folio))
		goto retry;
	/*
	 * A shadow entry of a recently evicted page, a swap
	 * entry from shmem/tmpfs or a DAX entry.  Return it
	 * without attempting to raise page count.
	 */
	if (!folio || xa_is_value(folio))
		return folio;

	if (!folio_try_get_rcu(folio))
		goto reset;

	if (unlikely(folio != xas_reload(xas))) {
		folio_put(folio);
		goto reset;
	}

	return folio;
reset:
	xas_reset(xas);
	goto retry;
}

/**
 * find_get_entries - gang pagecache lookup
 * @mapping:	The address_space to search
 * @start:	The starting page cache index
 * @end:	The final page index (inclusive).
 * @fbatch:	Where the resulting entries are placed.
 * @indices:	The cache indices corresponding to the entries in @entries
 *
 * find_get_entries() will search for and return a batch of entries in
 * the mapping.  The entries are placed in @fbatch.  find_get_entries()
 * takes a reference on any actual folios it returns.
 *
 * The entries have ascending indexes.  The indices may not be consecutive
 * due to not-present entries or large folios.
 *
 * Any shadow entries of evicted folios, or swap entries from
 * shmem/tmpfs, are included in the returned array.
 *
 * Return: The number of entries which were found.
 */
unsigned find_get_entries(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t *start,
		pgoff_t end, struct folio_batch *fbatch, pgoff_t *indices)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, *start);
	struct folio *folio;

	rcu_read_lock();
	while ((folio = find_get_entry(&xas, end, XA_PRESENT)) != NULL) {
		indices[fbatch->nr] = xas.xa_index;
		if (!folio_batch_add(fbatch, folio))
			break;
	}
	rcu_read_unlock();

	if (folio_batch_count(fbatch)) {
		unsigned long nr = 1;
		int idx = folio_batch_count(fbatch) - 1;

		folio = fbatch->folios[idx];
		if (!xa_is_value(folio) && !folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
			nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
		*start = indices[idx] + nr;
	}
	return folio_batch_count(fbatch);
}

/**
 * find_lock_entries - Find a batch of pagecache entries.
 * @mapping:	The address_space to search.
 * @start:	The starting page cache index.
 * @end:	The final page index (inclusive).
 * @fbatch:	Where the resulting entries are placed.
 * @indices:	The cache indices of the entries in @fbatch.
 *
 * find_lock_entries() will return a batch of entries from @mapping.
 * Swap, shadow and DAX entries are included.  Folios are returned
 * locked and with an incremented refcount.  Folios which are locked
 * by somebody else or under writeback are skipped.  Folios which are
 * partially outside the range are not returned.
 *
 * The entries have ascending indexes.  The indices may not be consecutive
 * due to not-present entries, large folios, folios which could not be
 * locked or folios under writeback.
 *
 * Return: The number of entries which were found.
 */
unsigned find_lock_entries(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t *start,
		pgoff_t end, struct folio_batch *fbatch, pgoff_t *indices)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, *start);
	struct folio *folio;

	rcu_read_lock();
	while ((folio = find_get_entry(&xas, end, XA_PRESENT))) {
		if (!xa_is_value(folio)) {
			if (folio->index < *start)
				goto put;
			if (folio->index + folio_nr_pages(folio) - 1 > end)
				goto put;
			if (!folio_trylock(folio))
				goto put;
			if (folio->mapping != mapping ||
			    folio_test_writeback(folio))
				goto unlock;
			VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_contains(folio, xas.xa_index),
					folio);
		}
		indices[fbatch->nr] = xas.xa_index;
		if (!folio_batch_add(fbatch, folio))
			break;
		continue;
unlock:
		folio_unlock(folio);
put:
		folio_put(folio);
	}
	rcu_read_unlock();

	if (folio_batch_count(fbatch)) {
		unsigned long nr = 1;
		int idx = folio_batch_count(fbatch) - 1;

		folio = fbatch->folios[idx];
		if (!xa_is_value(folio) && !folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
			nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
		*start = indices[idx] + nr;
	}
	return folio_batch_count(fbatch);
}

/**
 * filemap_get_folios - Get a batch of folios
 * @mapping:	The address_space to search
 * @start:	The starting page index
 * @end:	The final page index (inclusive)
 * @fbatch:	The batch to fill.
 *
 * Search for and return a batch of folios in the mapping starting at
 * index @start and up to index @end (inclusive).  The folios are returned
 * in @fbatch with an elevated reference count.
 *
 * The first folio may start before @start; if it does, it will contain
 * @start.  The final folio may extend beyond @end; if it does, it will
 * contain @end.  The folios have ascending indices.  There may be gaps
 * between the folios if there are indices which have no folio in the
 * page cache.  If folios are added to or removed from the page cache
 * while this is running, they may or may not be found by this call.
 *
 * Return: The number of folios which were found.
 * We also update @start to index the next folio for the traversal.
 */
unsigned filemap_get_folios(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t *start,
		pgoff_t end, struct folio_batch *fbatch)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, *start);
	struct folio *folio;

	rcu_read_lock();
	while ((folio = find_get_entry(&xas, end, XA_PRESENT)) != NULL) {
		/* Skip over shadow, swap and DAX entries */
		if (xa_is_value(folio))
			continue;
		if (!folio_batch_add(fbatch, folio)) {
			unsigned long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);

			if (folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
				nr = 1;
			*start = folio->index + nr;
			goto out;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * We come here when there is no page beyond @end. We take care to not
	 * overflow the index @start as it confuses some of the callers. This
	 * breaks the iteration when there is a page at index -1 but that is
	 * already broken anyway.
	 */
	if (end == (pgoff_t)-1)
		*start = (pgoff_t)-1;
	else
		*start = end + 1;
out:
	rcu_read_unlock();

	return folio_batch_count(fbatch);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_get_folios);

static inline
bool folio_more_pages(struct folio *folio, pgoff_t index, pgoff_t max)
{
	if (!folio_test_large(folio) || folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
		return false;
	if (index >= max)
		return false;
	return index < folio->index + folio_nr_pages(folio) - 1;
}

/**
 * filemap_get_folios_contig - Get a batch of contiguous folios
 * @mapping:	The address_space to search
 * @start:	The starting page index
 * @end:	The final page index (inclusive)
 * @fbatch:	The batch to fill
 *
 * filemap_get_folios_contig() works exactly like filemap_get_folios(),
 * except the returned folios are guaranteed to be contiguous. This may
 * not return all contiguous folios if the batch gets filled up.
 *
 * Return: The number of folios found.
 * Also update @start to be positioned for traversal of the next folio.
 */

unsigned filemap_get_folios_contig(struct address_space *mapping,
		pgoff_t *start, pgoff_t end, struct folio_batch *fbatch)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, *start);
	unsigned long nr;
	struct folio *folio;

	rcu_read_lock();

	for (folio = xas_load(&xas); folio && xas.xa_index <= end;
			folio = xas_next(&xas)) {
		if (xas_retry(&xas, folio))
			continue;
		/*
		 * If the entry has been swapped out, we can stop looking.
		 * No current caller is looking for DAX entries.
		 */
		if (xa_is_value(folio))
			goto update_start;

		if (!folio_try_get_rcu(folio))
			goto retry;

		if (unlikely(folio != xas_reload(&xas)))
			goto put_folio;

		if (!folio_batch_add(fbatch, folio)) {
			nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);

			if (folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
				nr = 1;
			*start = folio->index + nr;
			goto out;
		}
		continue;
put_folio:
		folio_put(folio);

retry:
		xas_reset(&xas);
	}

update_start:
	nr = folio_batch_count(fbatch);

	if (nr) {
		folio = fbatch->folios[nr - 1];
		if (folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
			*start = folio->index + 1;
		else
			*start = folio->index + folio_nr_pages(folio);
	}
out:
	rcu_read_unlock();
	return folio_batch_count(fbatch);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_get_folios_contig);

/**
 * filemap_get_folios_tag - Get a batch of folios matching @tag
 * @mapping:    The address_space to search
 * @start:      The starting page index
 * @end:        The final page index (inclusive)
 * @tag:        The tag index
 * @fbatch:     The batch to fill
 *
 * Same as filemap_get_folios(), but only returning folios tagged with @tag.
 *
 * Return: The number of folios found.
 * Also update @start to index the next folio for traversal.
 */
unsigned filemap_get_folios_tag(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t *start,
			pgoff_t end, xa_mark_t tag, struct folio_batch *fbatch)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, *start);
	struct folio *folio;

	rcu_read_lock();
	while ((folio = find_get_entry(&xas, end, tag)) != NULL) {
		/*
		 * Shadow entries should never be tagged, but this iteration
		 * is lockless so there is a window for page reclaim to evict
		 * a page we saw tagged. Skip over it.
		 */
		if (xa_is_value(folio))
			continue;
		if (!folio_batch_add(fbatch, folio)) {
			unsigned long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);

			if (folio_test_hugetlb(folio))
				nr = 1;
			*start = folio->index + nr;
			goto out;
		}
	}
	/*
	 * We come here when there is no page beyond @end. We take care to not
	 * overflow the index @start as it confuses some of the callers. This
	 * breaks the iteration when there is a page at index -1 but that is
	 * already broke anyway.
	 */
	if (end == (pgoff_t)-1)
		*start = (pgoff_t)-1;
	else
		*start = end + 1;
out:
	rcu_read_unlock();

	return folio_batch_count(fbatch);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_get_folios_tag);

/*
 * CD/DVDs are error prone. When a medium error occurs, the driver may fail
 * a _large_ part of the i/o request. Imagine the worst scenario:
 *
 *      ---R__________________________________________B__________
 *         ^ reading here                             ^ bad block(assume 4k)
 *
 * read(R) => miss => readahead(R...B) => media error => frustrating retries
 * => failing the whole request => read(R) => read(R+1) =>
 * readahead(R+1...B+1) => bang => read(R+2) => read(R+3) =>
 * readahead(R+3...B+2) => bang => read(R+3) => read(R+4) =>
 * readahead(R+4...B+3) => bang => read(R+4) => read(R+5) => ......
 *
 * It is going insane. Fix it by quickly scaling down the readahead size.
 */
static void shrink_readahead_size_eio(struct file_ra_state *ra)
{
	ra->ra_pages /= 4;
}

/*
 * filemap_get_read_batch - Get a batch of folios for read
 *
 * Get a batch of folios which represent a contiguous range of bytes in
 * the file.  No exceptional entries will be returned.  If @index is in
 * the middle of a folio, the entire folio will be returned.  The last
 * folio in the batch may have the readahead flag set or the uptodate flag
 * clear so that the caller can take the appropriate action.
 */
static void filemap_get_read_batch(struct address_space *mapping,
		pgoff_t index, pgoff_t max, struct folio_batch *fbatch)
{
	XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, index);
	struct folio *folio;

	rcu_read_lock();
	for (folio = xas_load(&xas); folio; folio = xas_next(&xas)) {
		if (xas_retry(&xas, folio))
			continue;
		if (xas.xa_index > max || xa_is_value(folio))
			break;
		if (xa_is_sibling(folio))
			break;
		if (!folio_try_get_rcu(folio))
			goto retry;

		if (unlikely(folio != xas_reload(&xas)))
			goto put_folio;

		if (!folio_batch_add(fbatch, folio))
			break;
		if (!folio_test_uptodate(folio))
			break;
		if (folio_test_readahead(folio))
			break;
		xas_advance(&xas, folio->index + folio_nr_pages(folio) - 1);
		continue;
put_folio:
		folio_put(folio);
retry:
		xas_reset(&xas);
	}
	rcu_read_unlock();
}

static int filemap_read_folio(struct file *file, filler_t filler,
		struct folio *folio)
{
	bool workingset = folio_test_workingset(folio);
	unsigned long pflags;
	int error;

	/*
	 * A previous I/O error may have been due to temporary failures,
	 * eg. multipath errors.  PG_error will be set again if read_folio
	 * fails.
	 */
	folio_clear_error(folio);

	/* Start the actual read. The read will unlock the page. */
	if (unlikely(workingset))
		psi_memstall_enter(&pflags);
	error = filler(file, folio);
	if (unlikely(workingset))
		psi_memstall_leave(&pflags);
	if (error)
		return error;

	error = folio_wait_locked_killable(folio);
	if (error)
		return error;
	if (folio_test_uptodate(folio))
		return 0;
	if (file)
		shrink_readahead_size_eio(&file->f_ra);
	return -EIO;
}

static bool filemap_range_uptodate(struct address_space *mapping,
		loff_t pos, size_t count, struct folio *folio,
		bool need_uptodate)
{
	if (folio_test_uptodate(folio))
		return true;
	/* pipes can't handle partially uptodate pages */
	if (need_uptodate)
		return false;
	if (!mapping->a_ops->is_partially_uptodate)
		return false;
	if (mapping->host->i_blkbits >= folio_shift(folio))
		return false;

	if (folio_pos(folio) > pos) {
		count -= folio_pos(folio) - pos;
		pos = 0;
	} else {
		pos -= folio_pos(folio);
	}

	return mapping->a_ops->is_partially_uptodate(folio, pos, count);
}

static int filemap_update_page(struct kiocb *iocb,
		struct address_space *mapping, size_t count,
		struct folio *folio, bool need_uptodate)
{
	int error;

	if (iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_NOWAIT) {
		if (!filemap_invalidate_trylock_shared(mapping))
			return -EAGAIN;
	} else {
		filemap_invalidate_lock_shared(mapping);
	}

	if (!folio_trylock(folio)) {
		error = -EAGAIN;
		if (iocb->ki_flags & (IOCB_NOWAIT | IOCB_NOIO))
			goto unlock_mapping;
		if (!(iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_WAITQ)) {
			filemap_invalidate_unlock_shared(mapping);
			/*
			 * This is where we usually end up waiting for a
			 * previously submitted readahead to finish.
			 */
			folio_put_wait_locked(folio, TASK_KILLABLE);
			return AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE;
		}
		error = __folio_lock_async(folio, iocb->ki_waitq);
		if (error)
			goto unlock_mapping;
	}

	error = AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE;
	if (!folio->mapping)
		goto unlock;

	error = 0;
	if (filemap_range_uptodate(mapping, iocb->ki_pos, count, folio,
				   need_uptodate))
		goto unlock;

	error = -EAGAIN;
	if (iocb->ki_flags & (IOCB_NOIO | IOCB_NOWAIT | IOCB_WAITQ))
		goto unlock;

	error = filemap_read_folio(iocb->ki_filp, mapping->a_ops->read_folio,
			folio);
	goto unlock_mapping;
unlock:
	folio_unlock(folio);
unlock_mapping:
	filemap_invalidate_unlock_shared(mapping);
	if (error == AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE)
		folio_put(folio);
	return error;
}

static int filemap_create_folio(struct file *file,
		struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index,
		struct folio_batch *fbatch)
{
	struct folio *folio;
	int error;

	folio = filemap_alloc_folio(mapping_gfp_mask(mapping), 0);
	if (!folio)
		return -ENOMEM;

	/*
	 * Protect against truncate / hole punch. Grabbing invalidate_lock
	 * here assures we cannot instantiate and bring uptodate new
	 * pagecache folios after evicting page cache during truncate
	 * and before actually freeing blocks.	Note that we could
	 * release invalidate_lock after inserting the folio into
	 * the page cache as the locked folio would then be enough to
	 * synchronize with hole punching. But there are code paths
	 * such as filemap_update_page() filling in partially uptodate
	 * pages or ->readahead() that need to hold invalidate_lock
	 * while mapping blocks for IO so let's hold the lock here as
	 * well to keep locking rules simple.
	 */
	filemap_invalidate_lock_shared(mapping);
	error = filemap_add_folio(mapping, folio, index,
			mapping_gfp_constraint(mapping, GFP_KERNEL));
	if (error == -EEXIST)
		error = AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE;
	if (error)
		goto error;

	error = filemap_read_folio(file, mapping->a_ops->read_folio, folio);
	if (error)
		goto error;

	filemap_invalidate_unlock_shared(mapping);
	folio_batch_add(fbatch, folio);
	return 0;
error:
	filemap_invalidate_unlock_shared(mapping);
	folio_put(folio);
	return error;
}

static int filemap_readahead(struct kiocb *iocb, struct file *file,
		struct address_space *mapping, struct folio *folio,
		pgoff_t last_index)
{
	DEFINE_READAHEAD(ractl, file, &file->f_ra, mapping, folio->index);

	if (iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_NOIO)
		return -EAGAIN;
	page_cache_async_ra(&ractl, folio, last_index - folio->index);
	return 0;
}

static int filemap_get_pages(struct kiocb *iocb, size_t count,
		struct folio_batch *fbatch, bool need_uptodate)
{
	struct file *filp = iocb->ki_filp;
	struct address_space *mapping = filp->f_mapping;
	struct file_ra_state *ra = &filp->f_ra;
	pgoff_t index = iocb->ki_pos >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	pgoff_t last_index;
	struct folio *folio;
	int err = 0;

	/* "last_index" is the index of the page beyond the end of the read */
	last_index = DIV_ROUND_UP(iocb->ki_pos + count, PAGE_SIZE);
retry:
	if (fatal_signal_pending(current))
		return -EINTR;

	filemap_get_read_batch(mapping, index, last_index - 1, fbatch);
	if (!folio_batch_count(fbatch)) {
		if (iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_NOIO)
			return -EAGAIN;
		page_cache_sync_readahead(mapping, ra, filp, index,
				last_index - index);
		filemap_get_read_batch(mapping, index, last_index - 1, fbatch);
	}
	if (!folio_batch_count(fbatch)) {
		if (iocb->ki_flags & (IOCB_NOWAIT | IOCB_WAITQ))
			return -EAGAIN;
		err = filemap_create_folio(filp, mapping,
				iocb->ki_pos >> PAGE_SHIFT, fbatch);
		if (err == AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE)
			goto retry;
		return err;
	}

	folio = fbatch->folios[folio_batch_count(fbatch) - 1];
	if (folio_test_readahead(folio)) {
		err = filemap_readahead(iocb, filp, mapping, folio, last_index);
		if (err)
			goto err;
	}
	if (!folio_test_uptodate(folio)) {
		if ((iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_WAITQ) &&
		    folio_batch_count(fbatch) > 1)
			iocb->ki_flags |= IOCB_NOWAIT;
		err = filemap_update_page(iocb, mapping, count, folio,
					  need_uptodate);
		if (err)
			goto err;
	}

	return 0;
err:
	if (err < 0)
		folio_put(folio);
	if (likely(--fbatch->nr))
		return 0;
	if (err == AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE)
		goto retry;
	return err;
}

static inline bool pos_same_folio(loff_t pos1, loff_t pos2, struct folio *folio)
{
	unsigned int shift = folio_shift(folio);

	return (pos1 >> shift == pos2 >> shift);
}

/**
 * filemap_read - Read data from the page cache.
 * @iocb: The iocb to read.
 * @iter: Destination for the data.
 * @already_read: Number of bytes already read by the caller.
 *
 * Copies data from the page cache.  If the data is not currently present,
 * uses the readahead and read_folio address_space operations to fetch it.
 *
 * Return: Total number of bytes copied, including those already read by
 * the caller.  If an error happens before any bytes are copied, returns
 * a negative error number.
 */
ssize_t filemap_read(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *iter,
		ssize_t already_read)
{
	struct file *filp = iocb->ki_filp;
	struct file_ra_state *ra = &filp->f_ra;
	struct address_space *mapping = filp->f_mapping;
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct folio_batch fbatch;
	int i, error = 0;
	bool writably_mapped;
	loff_t isize, end_offset;

	if (unlikely(iocb->ki_pos >= inode->i_sb->s_maxbytes))
		return 0;
	if (unlikely(!iov_iter_count(iter)))
		return 0;

	iov_iter_truncate(iter, inode->i_sb->s_maxbytes);
	folio_batch_init(&fbatch);

	do {
		cond_resched();

		/*
		 * If we've already successfully copied some data, then we
		 * can no longer safely return -EIOCBQUEUED. Hence mark
		 * an async read NOWAIT at that point.
		 */
		if ((iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_WAITQ) && already_read)
			iocb->ki_flags |= IOCB_NOWAIT;

		if (unlikely(iocb->ki_pos >= i_size_read(inode)))
			break;

		error = filemap_get_pages(iocb, iter->count, &fbatch, false);
		if (error < 0)
			break;

		/*
		 * i_size must be checked after we know the pages are Uptodate.
		 *
		 * Checking i_size after the check allows us to calculate
		 * the correct value for "nr", which means the zero-filled
		 * part of the page is not copied back to userspace (unless
		 * another truncate extends the file - this is desired though).
		 */
		isize = i_size_read(inode);
		if (unlikely(iocb->ki_pos >= isize))
			goto put_folios;
		end_offset = min_t(loff_t, isize, iocb->ki_pos + iter->count);

		/*
		 * Once we start copying data, we don't want to be touching any
		 * cachelines that might be contended:
		 */
		writably_mapped = mapping_writably_mapped(mapping);

		/*
		 * When a read accesses the same folio several times, only
		 * mark it as accessed the first time.
		 */
		if (!pos_same_folio(iocb->ki_pos, ra->prev_pos - 1,
							fbatch.folios[0]))
			folio_mark_accessed(fbatch.folios[0]);

		for (i = 0; i < folio_batch_count(&fbatch); i++) {
			struct folio *folio = fbatch.folios[i];
			size_t fsize = folio_size(folio);
			size_t offset = iocb->ki_pos & (fsize - 1);
			size_t bytes = min_t(loff_t, end_offset - iocb->ki_pos,
					     fsize - offset);
			size_t copied;

			if (end_offset < folio_pos(folio))
				break;
			if (i > 0)
				folio_mark_accessed(folio);
			/*
			 * If users can be writing to this folio using arbitrary
			 * virtual addresses, take care of potential aliasing
			 * before reading the folio on the kernel side.
			 */
			if (writably_mapped)
				flush_dcache_folio(folio);

			copied = copy_folio_to_iter(folio, offset, bytes, iter);

			already_read += copied;
			iocb->ki_pos += copied;
			ra->prev_pos = iocb->ki_pos;

			if (copied < bytes) {
				error = -EFAULT;
				break;
			}
		}
put_folios:
		for (i = 0; i < folio_batch_count(&fbatch); i++)
			folio_put(fbatch.folios[i]);
		folio_batch_init(&fbatch);
	} while (iov_iter_count(iter) && iocb->ki_pos < isize && !error);

	file_accessed(filp);

	return already_read ? already_read : error;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(filemap_read);

int kiocb_write_and_wait(struct kiocb *iocb, size_t count)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = iocb->ki_filp->f_mapping;
	loff_t pos = iocb->ki_pos;
	loff_t end = pos + count - 1;

	if (iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_NOWAIT) {
		if (filemap_range_needs_writeback(mapping, pos, end))
			return -EAGAIN;
		return 0;
	}

	return filemap_write_and_wait_range(mapping, pos, end);
}

int kiocb_invalidate_pages(struct kiocb *iocb, size_t count)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = iocb->ki_filp->f_mapping;
	loff_t pos = iocb->ki_pos;
	loff_t end = pos + count - 1;
	int ret;

	if (iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_NOWAIT) {
		/* we could block if there are any pages in the range */
		if (filemap_range_has_page(mapping, pos, end))
			return -EAGAIN;
	} else {
		ret = filemap_write_and_wait_range(mapping, pos, end);
		if (ret)
			return ret;
	}

	/*
	 * After a write we want buffered reads to be sure to go to disk to get
	 * the new data.  We invalidate clean cached page from the region we're
	 * about to write.  We do this *before* the write so that we can return
	 * without clobbering -EIOCBQUEUED from ->direct_IO().
	 */
	return invalidate_inode_pages2_range(mapping, pos >> PAGE_SHIFT,
					     end >> PAGE_SHIFT);
}

/**
 * generic_file_read_iter - generic filesystem read routine
 * @iocb:	kernel I/O control block
 * @iter:	destination for the data read
 *
 * This is the "read_iter()" routine for all filesystems
 * that can use the page cache directly.
 *
 * The IOCB_NOWAIT flag in iocb->ki_flags indicates that -EAGAIN shall
 * be returned when no data can be read without waiting for I/O requests
 * to complete; it doesn't prevent readahead.
 *
 * The IOCB_NOIO flag in iocb->ki_flags indicates that no new I/O
 * requests shall be made for the read or for readahead.  When no data
 * can be read, -EAGAIN shall be returned.  When readahead would be
 * triggered, a partial, possibly empty read shall be returned.
 *
 * Return:
 * * number of bytes copied, even for partial reads
 * * negative error code (or 0 if IOCB_NOIO) if nothing was read
 */
ssize_t
generic_file_read_iter(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *iter)
{
	size_t count = iov_iter_count(iter);
	ssize_t retval = 0;

	if (!count)
		return 0; /* skip atime */

	if (iocb->ki_flags & IOCB_DIRECT) {
		struct file *file = iocb->ki_filp;
		struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;
		struct inode *inode = mapping->host;

		retval = kiocb_write_and_wait(iocb, count);
		if (retval < 0)
			return retval;
		file_accessed(file);

		retval = mapping->a_ops->direct_IO(iocb, iter);
		if (retval >= 0) {
			iocb->ki_pos += retval;
			count -= retval;
		}
		if (retval != -EIOCBQUEUED)
			iov_iter_revert(iter, count - iov_iter_count(iter));

		/*
		 * Btrfs can have a short DIO read if we encounter
		 * compressed extents, so if there was an error, or if
		 * we've already read everything we wanted to, or if
		 * there was a short read because we hit EOF, go ahead
		 * and return.  Otherwise fallthrough to buffered io for
		 * the rest of the read.  Buffered reads will not work for
		 * DAX files, so don't bother trying.
		 */
		if (retval < 0 || !count || IS_DAX(inode))
			return retval;
		if (iocb->ki_pos >= i_size_read(inode))
			return retval;
	}

	return filemap_read(iocb, iter, retval);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_file_read_iter);

/*
 * Splice subpages from a folio into a pipe.
 */
size_t splice_folio_into_pipe(struct pipe_inode_info *pipe,
			      struct folio *folio, loff_t fpos, size_t size)
{
	struct page *page;
	size_t spliced = 0, offset = offset_in_folio(folio, fpos);

	page = folio_page(folio, offset / PAGE_SIZE);
	size = min(size, folio_size(folio) - offset);
	offset %= PAGE_SIZE;

	while (spliced < size &&
	       !pipe_full(pipe->head, pipe->tail, pipe->max_usage)) {
		struct pipe_buffer *buf = pipe_head_buf(pipe);
		size_t part = min_t(size_t, PAGE_SIZE - offset, size - spliced);

		*buf = (struct pipe_buffer) {
			.ops	= &page_cache_pipe_buf_ops,
			.page	= page,
			.offset	= offset,
			.len	= part,
		};
		folio_get(folio);
		pipe->head++;
		page++;
		spliced += part;
		offset = 0;
	}

	return spliced;
}

/**
 * filemap_splice_read -  Splice data from a file's pagecache into a pipe
 * @in: The file to read from
 * @ppos: Pointer to the file position to read from
 * @pipe: The pipe to splice into
 * @len: The amount to splice
 * @flags: The SPLICE_F_* flags
 *
 * This function gets folios from a file's pagecache and splices them into the
 * pipe.  Readahead will be called as necessary to fill more folios.  This may
 * be used for blockdevs also.
 *
 * Return: On success, the number of bytes read will be returned and *@ppos
 * will be updated if appropriate; 0 will be returned if there is no more data
 * to be read; -EAGAIN will be returned if the pipe had no space, and some
 * other negative error code will be returned on error.  A short read may occur
 * if the pipe has insufficient space, we reach the end of the data or we hit a
 * hole.
 */
ssize_t filemap_splice_read(struct file *in, loff_t *ppos,
			    struct pipe_inode_info *pipe,
			    size_t len, unsigned int flags)
{
	struct folio_batch fbatch;
	struct kiocb iocb;
	size_t total_spliced = 0, used, npages;
	loff_t isize, end_offset;
	bool writably_mapped;
	int i, error = 0;

	if (unlikely(*ppos >= in->f_mapping->host->i_sb->s_maxbytes))
		return 0;

	init_sync_kiocb(&iocb, in);
	iocb.ki_pos = *ppos;

	/* Work out how much data we can actually add into the pipe */
	used = pipe_occupancy(pipe->head, pipe->tail);
	npages = max_t(ssize_t, pipe->max_usage - used, 0);
	len = min_t(size_t, len, npages * PAGE_SIZE);

	folio_batch_init(&fbatch);

	do {
		cond_resched();

		if (*ppos >= i_size_read(in->f_mapping->host))
			break;

		iocb.ki_pos = *ppos;
		error = filemap_get_pages(&iocb, len, &fbatch, true);
		if (error < 0)
			break;

		/*
		 * i_size must be checked after we know the pages are Uptodate.
		 *
		 * Checking i_size after the check allows us to calculate
		 * the correct value for "nr", which means the zero-filled
		 * part of the page is not copied back to userspace (unless
		 * another truncate extends the file - this is desired though).
		 */
		isize = i_size_read(in->f_mapping->host);
		if (unlikely(*ppos >= isize))
			break;
		end_offset = min_t(loff_t, isize, *ppos + len);

		/*
		 * Once we start copying data, we don't want to be touching any
		 * cachelines that might be contended:
		 */
		writably_mapped = mapping_writably_mapped(in->f_mapping);

		for (i = 0; i < folio_batch_count(&fbatch); i++) {
			struct folio *folio = fbatch.folios[i];
			size_t n;

			if (folio_pos(folio) >= end_offset)
				goto out;
			folio_mark_accessed(folio);

			/*
			 * If users can be writing to this folio using arbitrary
			 * virtual addresses, take care of potential aliasing
			 * before reading the folio on the kernel side.
			 */
			if (writably_mapped)
				flush_dcache_folio(folio);

			n = min_t(loff_t, len, isize - *ppos);
			n = splice_folio_into_pipe(pipe, folio, *ppos, n);
			if (!n)
				goto out;
			len -= n;
			total_spliced += n;
			*ppos += n;
			in->f_ra.prev_pos = *ppos;
			if (pipe_full(pipe->head, pipe->tail, pipe->max_usage))
				goto out;
		}

		folio_batch_release(&fbatch);
	} while (len);

out:
	folio_batch_releas