Bootlin logo

Elixir Cross Referencer

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
/*
 * builtin-stat.c
 *
 * Builtin stat command: Give a precise performance counters summary
 * overview about any workload, CPU or specific PID.
 *
 * Sample output:

   $ perf stat ./hackbench 10

  Time: 0.118

  Performance counter stats for './hackbench 10':

       1708.761321 task-clock                #   11.037 CPUs utilized
            41,190 context-switches          #    0.024 M/sec
             6,735 CPU-migrations            #    0.004 M/sec
            17,318 page-faults               #    0.010 M/sec
     5,205,202,243 cycles                    #    3.046 GHz
     3,856,436,920 stalled-cycles-frontend   #   74.09% frontend cycles idle
     1,600,790,871 stalled-cycles-backend    #   30.75% backend  cycles idle
     2,603,501,247 instructions              #    0.50  insns per cycle
                                             #    1.48  stalled cycles per insn
       484,357,498 branches                  #  283.455 M/sec
         6,388,934 branch-misses             #    1.32% of all branches

        0.154822978  seconds time elapsed

 *
 * Copyright (C) 2008-2011, Red Hat Inc, Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
 *
 * Improvements and fixes by:
 *
 *   Arjan van de Ven <arjan@linux.intel.com>
 *   Yanmin Zhang <yanmin.zhang@intel.com>
 *   Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
 *   Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de>
 *   Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>
 *   Jaswinder Singh Rajput <jaswinder@kernel.org>
 *
 * Released under the GPL v2. (and only v2, not any later version)
 */

#include "perf.h"
#include "builtin.h"
#include "util/cgroup.h"
#include "util/util.h"
#include "util/parse-options.h"
#include "util/parse-events.h"
#include "util/pmu.h"
#include "util/event.h"
#include "util/evlist.h"
#include "util/evsel.h"
#include "util/debug.h"
#include "util/color.h"
#include "util/stat.h"
#include "util/header.h"
#include "util/cpumap.h"
#include "util/thread.h"
#include "util/thread_map.h"

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/prctl.h>
#include <locale.h>

#define DEFAULT_SEPARATOR	" "
#define CNTR_NOT_SUPPORTED	"<not supported>"
#define CNTR_NOT_COUNTED	"<not counted>"

static void print_counters(struct timespec *ts, int argc, const char **argv);

/* Default events used for perf stat -T */
static const char *transaction_attrs = {
	"task-clock,"
	"{"
	"instructions,"
	"cycles,"
	"cpu/cycles-t/,"
	"cpu/tx-start/,"
	"cpu/el-start/,"
	"cpu/cycles-ct/"
	"}"
};

/* More limited version when the CPU does not have all events. */
static const char * transaction_limited_attrs = {
	"task-clock,"
	"{"
	"instructions,"
	"cycles,"
	"cpu/cycles-t/,"
	"cpu/tx-start/"
	"}"
};

static struct perf_evlist	*evsel_list;

static struct target target = {
	.uid	= UINT_MAX,
};

static int			run_count			=  1;
static bool			no_inherit			= false;
static bool			scale				=  true;
static enum aggr_mode		aggr_mode			= AGGR_GLOBAL;
static volatile pid_t		child_pid			= -1;
static bool			null_run			=  false;
static int			detailed_run			=  0;
static bool			transaction_run;
static bool			big_num				=  true;
static int			big_num_opt			=  -1;
static const char		*csv_sep			= NULL;
static bool			csv_output			= false;
static bool			group				= false;
static FILE			*output				= NULL;
static const char		*pre_cmd			= NULL;
static const char		*post_cmd			= NULL;
static bool			sync_run			= false;
static unsigned int		interval			= 0;
static unsigned int		initial_delay			= 0;
static unsigned int		unit_width			= 4; /* strlen("unit") */
static bool			forever				= false;
static struct timespec		ref_time;
static struct cpu_map		*aggr_map;
static int			(*aggr_get_id)(struct cpu_map *m, int cpu);

static volatile int done = 0;

static inline void diff_timespec(struct timespec *r, struct timespec *a,
				 struct timespec *b)
{
	r->tv_sec = a->tv_sec - b->tv_sec;
	if (a->tv_nsec < b->tv_nsec) {
		r->tv_nsec = a->tv_nsec + 1000000000L - b->tv_nsec;
		r->tv_sec--;
	} else {
		r->tv_nsec = a->tv_nsec - b->tv_nsec ;
	}
}

static void perf_stat__reset_stats(void)
{
	perf_evlist__reset_stats(evsel_list);
	perf_stat__reset_shadow_stats();
}

static int create_perf_stat_counter(struct perf_evsel *evsel)
{
	struct perf_event_attr *attr = &evsel->attr;

	if (scale)
		attr->read_format = PERF_FORMAT_TOTAL_TIME_ENABLED |
				    PERF_FORMAT_TOTAL_TIME_RUNNING;

	attr->inherit = !no_inherit;

	if (target__has_cpu(&target))
		return perf_evsel__open_per_cpu(evsel, perf_evsel__cpus(evsel));

	if (!target__has_task(&target) && perf_evsel__is_group_leader(evsel)) {
		attr->disabled = 1;
		if (!initial_delay)
			attr->enable_on_exec = 1;
	}

	return perf_evsel__open_per_thread(evsel, evsel_list->threads);
}

/*
 * Does the counter have nsecs as a unit?
 */
static inline int nsec_counter(struct perf_evsel *evsel)
{
	if (perf_evsel__match(evsel, SOFTWARE, SW_CPU_CLOCK) ||
	    perf_evsel__match(evsel, SOFTWARE, SW_TASK_CLOCK))
		return 1;

	return 0;
}

static void zero_per_pkg(struct perf_evsel *counter)
{
	if (counter->per_pkg_mask)
		memset(counter->per_pkg_mask, 0, MAX_NR_CPUS);
}

static int check_per_pkg(struct perf_evsel *counter, int cpu, bool *skip)
{
	unsigned long *mask = counter->per_pkg_mask;
	struct cpu_map *cpus = perf_evsel__cpus(counter);
	int s;

	*skip = false;

	if (!counter->per_pkg)
		return 0;

	if (cpu_map__empty(cpus))
		return 0;

	if (!mask) {
		mask = zalloc(MAX_NR_CPUS);
		if (!mask)
			return -ENOMEM;

		counter->per_pkg_mask = mask;
	}

	s = cpu_map__get_socket(cpus, cpu);
	if (s < 0)
		return -1;

	*skip = test_and_set_bit(s, mask) == 1;
	return 0;
}

static int
process_counter_values(struct perf_evsel *evsel, int cpu, int thread,
		       struct perf_counts_values *count)
{
	struct perf_counts_values *aggr = &evsel->counts->aggr;
	static struct perf_counts_values zero;
	bool skip = false;

	if (check_per_pkg(evsel, cpu, &skip)) {
		pr_err("failed to read per-pkg counter\n");
		return -1;
	}

	if (skip)
		count = &zero;

	switch (aggr_mode) {
	case AGGR_THREAD:
	case AGGR_CORE:
	case AGGR_SOCKET:
	case AGGR_NONE:
		if (!evsel->snapshot)
			perf_evsel__compute_deltas(evsel, cpu, thread, count);
		perf_counts_values__scale(count, scale, NULL);
		if (aggr_mode == AGGR_NONE)
			perf_stat__update_shadow_stats(evsel, count->values, cpu);
		break;
	case AGGR_GLOBAL:
		aggr->val += count->val;
		if (scale) {
			aggr->ena += count->ena;
			aggr->run += count->run;
		}
	default:
		break;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int process_counter_maps(struct perf_evsel *counter)
{
	int nthreads = thread_map__nr(counter->threads);
	int ncpus = perf_evsel__nr_cpus(counter);
	int cpu, thread;

	if (counter->system_wide)
		nthreads = 1;

	for (thread = 0; thread < nthreads; thread++) {
		for (cpu = 0; cpu < ncpus; cpu++) {
			if (process_counter_values(counter, cpu, thread,
						   perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, thread)))
				return -1;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}

static int process_counter(struct perf_evsel *counter)
{
	struct perf_counts_values *aggr = &counter->counts->aggr;
	struct perf_stat *ps = counter->priv;
	u64 *count = counter->counts->aggr.values;
	int i, ret;

	aggr->val = aggr->ena = aggr->run = 0;
	init_stats(ps->res_stats);

	if (counter->per_pkg)
		zero_per_pkg(counter);

	ret = process_counter_maps(counter);
	if (ret)
		return ret;

	if (aggr_mode != AGGR_GLOBAL)
		return 0;

	if (!counter->snapshot)
		perf_evsel__compute_deltas(counter, -1, -1, aggr);
	perf_counts_values__scale(aggr, scale, &counter->counts->scaled);

	for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
		update_stats(&ps->res_stats[i], count[i]);

	if (verbose) {
		fprintf(output, "%s: %" PRIu64 " %" PRIu64 " %" PRIu64 "\n",
			perf_evsel__name(counter), count[0], count[1], count[2]);
	}

	/*
	 * Save the full runtime - to allow normalization during printout:
	 */
	perf_stat__update_shadow_stats(counter, count, 0);

	return 0;
}

/*
 * Read out the results of a single counter:
 * do not aggregate counts across CPUs in system-wide mode
 */
static int read_counter(struct perf_evsel *counter)
{
	int nthreads = thread_map__nr(evsel_list->threads);
	int ncpus = perf_evsel__nr_cpus(counter);
	int cpu, thread;

	if (!counter->supported)
		return -ENOENT;

	if (counter->system_wide)
		nthreads = 1;

	for (thread = 0; thread < nthreads; thread++) {
		for (cpu = 0; cpu < ncpus; cpu++) {
			struct perf_counts_values *count;

			count = perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, thread);
			if (perf_evsel__read(counter, cpu, thread, count))
				return -1;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}

static void read_counters(bool close_counters)
{
	struct perf_evsel *counter;

	evlist__for_each(evsel_list, counter) {
		if (read_counter(counter))
			pr_warning("failed to read counter %s\n", counter->name);

		if (process_counter(counter))
			pr_warning("failed to process counter %s\n", counter->name);

		if (close_counters) {
			perf_evsel__close_fd(counter, perf_evsel__nr_cpus(counter),
					     thread_map__nr(evsel_list->threads));
		}
	}
}

static void process_interval(void)
{
	struct timespec ts, rs;

	read_counters(false);

	clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &ts);
	diff_timespec(&rs, &ts, &ref_time);

	print_counters(&rs, 0, NULL);
}

static void handle_initial_delay(void)
{
	struct perf_evsel *counter;

	if (initial_delay) {
		const int ncpus = cpu_map__nr(evsel_list->cpus),
			nthreads = thread_map__nr(evsel_list->threads);

		usleep(initial_delay * 1000);
		evlist__for_each(evsel_list, counter)
			perf_evsel__enable(counter, ncpus, nthreads);
	}
}

static volatile int workload_exec_errno;

/*
 * perf_evlist__prepare_workload will send a SIGUSR1
 * if the fork fails, since we asked by setting its
 * want_signal to true.
 */
static void workload_exec_failed_signal(int signo __maybe_unused, siginfo_t *info,
					void *ucontext __maybe_unused)
{
	workload_exec_errno = info->si_value.sival_int;
}

static int __run_perf_stat(int argc, const char **argv)
{
	char msg[512];
	unsigned long long t0, t1;
	struct perf_evsel *counter;
	struct timespec ts;
	size_t l;
	int status = 0;
	const bool forks = (argc > 0);

	if (interval) {
		ts.tv_sec  = interval / 1000;
		ts.tv_nsec = (interval % 1000) * 1000000;
	} else {
		ts.tv_sec  = 1;
		ts.tv_nsec = 0;
	}

	if (forks) {
		if (perf_evlist__prepare_workload(evsel_list, &target, argv, false,
						  workload_exec_failed_signal) < 0) {
			perror("failed to prepare workload");
			return -1;
		}
		child_pid = evsel_list->workload.pid;
	}

	if (group)
		perf_evlist__set_leader(evsel_list);

	evlist__for_each(evsel_list, counter) {
		if (create_perf_stat_counter(counter) < 0) {
			/*
			 * PPC returns ENXIO for HW counters until 2.6.37
			 * (behavior changed with commit b0a873e).
			 */
			if (errno == EINVAL || errno == ENOSYS ||
			    errno == ENOENT || errno == EOPNOTSUPP ||
			    errno == ENXIO) {
				if (verbose)
					ui__warning("%s event is not supported by the kernel.\n",
						    perf_evsel__name(counter));
				counter->supported = false;

				if ((counter->leader != counter) ||
				    !(counter->leader->nr_members > 1))
					continue;
			}

			perf_evsel__open_strerror(counter, &target,
						  errno, msg, sizeof(msg));
			ui__error("%s\n", msg);

			if (child_pid != -1)
				kill(child_pid, SIGTERM);

			return -1;
		}
		counter->supported = true;

		l = strlen(counter->unit);
		if (l > unit_width)
			unit_width = l;
	}

	if (perf_evlist__apply_filters(evsel_list, &counter)) {
		error("failed to set filter \"%s\" on event %s with %d (%s)\n",
			counter->filter, perf_evsel__name(counter), errno,
			strerror_r(errno, msg, sizeof(msg)));
		return -1;
	}

	/*
	 * Enable counters and exec the command:
	 */
	t0 = rdclock();
	clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &ref_time);

	if (forks) {
		perf_evlist__start_workload(evsel_list);
		handle_initial_delay();

		if (interval) {
			while (!waitpid(child_pid, &status, WNOHANG)) {
				nanosleep(&ts, NULL);
				process_interval();
			}
		}
		wait(&status);

		if (workload_exec_errno) {
			const char *emsg = strerror_r(workload_exec_errno, msg, sizeof(msg));
			pr_err("Workload failed: %s\n", emsg);
			return -1;
		}

		if (WIFSIGNALED(status))
			psignal(WTERMSIG(status), argv[0]);
	} else {
		handle_initial_delay();
		while (!done) {
			nanosleep(&ts, NULL);
			if (interval)
				process_interval();
		}
	}

	t1 = rdclock();

	update_stats(&walltime_nsecs_stats, t1 - t0);

	read_counters(true);

	return WEXITSTATUS(status);
}

static int run_perf_stat(int argc, const char **argv)
{
	int ret;

	if (pre_cmd) {
		ret = system(pre_cmd);
		if (ret)
			return ret;
	}

	if (sync_run)
		sync();

	ret = __run_perf_stat(argc, argv);
	if (ret)
		return ret;

	if (post_cmd) {
		ret = system(post_cmd);
		if (ret)
			return ret;
	}

	return ret;
}

static void print_running(u64 run, u64 ena)
{
	if (csv_output) {
		fprintf(output, "%s%" PRIu64 "%s%.2f",
					csv_sep,
					run,
					csv_sep,
					ena ? 100.0 * run / ena : 100.0);
	} else if (run != ena) {
		fprintf(output, "  (%.2f%%)", 100.0 * run / ena);
	}
}

static void print_noise_pct(double total, double avg)
{
	double pct = rel_stddev_stats(total, avg);

	if (csv_output)
		fprintf(output, "%s%.2f%%", csv_sep, pct);
	else if (pct)
		fprintf(output, "  ( +-%6.2f%% )", pct);
}

static void print_noise(struct perf_evsel *evsel, double avg)
{
	struct perf_stat *ps;

	if (run_count == 1)
		return;

	ps = evsel->priv;
	print_noise_pct(stddev_stats(&ps->res_stats[0]), avg);
}

static void aggr_printout(struct perf_evsel *evsel, int id, int nr)
{
	switch (aggr_mode) {
	case AGGR_CORE:
		fprintf(output, "S%d-C%*d%s%*d%s",
			cpu_map__id_to_socket(id),
			csv_output ? 0 : -8,
			cpu_map__id_to_cpu(id),
			csv_sep,
			csv_output ? 0 : 4,
			nr,
			csv_sep);
		break;
	case AGGR_SOCKET:
		fprintf(output, "S%*d%s%*d%s",
			csv_output ? 0 : -5,
			id,
			csv_sep,
			csv_output ? 0 : 4,
			nr,
			csv_sep);
			break;
	case AGGR_NONE:
		fprintf(output, "CPU%*d%s",
			csv_output ? 0 : -4,
			perf_evsel__cpus(evsel)->map[id], csv_sep);
		break;
	case AGGR_THREAD:
		fprintf(output, "%*s-%*d%s",
			csv_output ? 0 : 16,
			thread_map__comm(evsel->threads, id),
			csv_output ? 0 : -8,
			thread_map__pid(evsel->threads, id),
			csv_sep);
		break;
	case AGGR_GLOBAL:
	default:
		break;
	}
}

static void nsec_printout(int id, int nr, struct perf_evsel *evsel, double avg)
{
	double msecs = avg / 1e6;
	const char *fmt_v, *fmt_n;
	char name[25];

	fmt_v = csv_output ? "%.6f%s" : "%18.6f%s";
	fmt_n = csv_output ? "%s" : "%-25s";

	aggr_printout(evsel, id, nr);

	scnprintf(name, sizeof(name), "%s%s",
		  perf_evsel__name(evsel), csv_output ? "" : " (msec)");

	fprintf(output, fmt_v, msecs, csv_sep);

	if (csv_output)
		fprintf(output, "%s%s", evsel->unit, csv_sep);
	else
		fprintf(output, "%-*s%s", unit_width, evsel->unit, csv_sep);

	fprintf(output, fmt_n, name);

	if (evsel->cgrp)
		fprintf(output, "%s%s", csv_sep, evsel->cgrp->name);

	if (csv_output || interval)
		return;

	if (perf_evsel__match(evsel, SOFTWARE, SW_TASK_CLOCK))
		fprintf(output, " # %8.3f CPUs utilized          ",
			avg / avg_stats(&walltime_nsecs_stats));
	else
		fprintf(output, "                                   ");
}

static void abs_printout(int id, int nr, struct perf_evsel *evsel, double avg)
{
	double sc =  evsel->scale;
	const char *fmt;
	int cpu = cpu_map__id_to_cpu(id);

	if (csv_output) {
		fmt = sc != 1.0 ?  "%.2f%s" : "%.0f%s";
	} else {
		if (big_num)
			fmt = sc != 1.0 ? "%'18.2f%s" : "%'18.0f%s";
		else
			fmt = sc != 1.0 ? "%18.2f%s" : "%18.0f%s";
	}

	aggr_printout(evsel, id, nr);

	if (aggr_mode == AGGR_GLOBAL)
		cpu = 0;

	fprintf(output, fmt, avg, csv_sep);

	if (evsel->unit)
		fprintf(output, "%-*s%s",
			csv_output ? 0 : unit_width,
			evsel->unit, csv_sep);

	fprintf(output, "%-*s", csv_output ? 0 : 25, perf_evsel__name(evsel));

	if (evsel->cgrp)
		fprintf(output, "%s%s", csv_sep, evsel->cgrp->name);

	if (csv_output || interval)
		return;

	perf_stat__print_shadow_stats(output, evsel, avg, cpu, aggr_mode);
}

static void print_aggr(char *prefix)
{
	struct perf_evsel *counter;
	int cpu, cpu2, s, s2, id, nr;
	double uval;
	u64 ena, run, val;

	if (!(aggr_map || aggr_get_id))
		return;

	for (s = 0; s < aggr_map->nr; s++) {
		id = aggr_map->map[s];
		evlist__for_each(evsel_list, counter) {
			val = ena = run = 0;
			nr = 0;
			for (cpu = 0; cpu < perf_evsel__nr_cpus(counter); cpu++) {
				cpu2 = perf_evsel__cpus(counter)->map[cpu];
				s2 = aggr_get_id(evsel_list->cpus, cpu2);
				if (s2 != id)
					continue;
				val += perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, 0)->val;
				ena += perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, 0)->ena;
				run += perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, 0)->run;
				nr++;
			}
			if (prefix)
				fprintf(output, "%s", prefix);

			if (run == 0 || ena == 0) {
				aggr_printout(counter, id, nr);

				fprintf(output, "%*s%s",
					csv_output ? 0 : 18,
					counter->supported ? CNTR_NOT_COUNTED : CNTR_NOT_SUPPORTED,
					csv_sep);

				fprintf(output, "%-*s%s",
					csv_output ? 0 : unit_width,
					counter->unit, csv_sep);

				fprintf(output, "%*s",
					csv_output ? 0 : -25,
					perf_evsel__name(counter));

				if (counter->cgrp)
					fprintf(output, "%s%s",
						csv_sep, counter->cgrp->name);

				print_running(run, ena);
				fputc('\n', output);
				continue;
			}
			uval = val * counter->scale;

			if (nsec_counter(counter))
				nsec_printout(id, nr, counter, uval);
			else
				abs_printout(id, nr, counter, uval);

			if (!csv_output)
				print_noise(counter, 1.0);

			print_running(run, ena);
			fputc('\n', output);
		}
	}
}

static void print_aggr_thread(struct perf_evsel *counter, char *prefix)
{
	int nthreads = thread_map__nr(counter->threads);
	int ncpus = cpu_map__nr(counter->cpus);
	int cpu, thread;
	double uval;

	for (thread = 0; thread < nthreads; thread++) {
		u64 ena = 0, run = 0, val = 0;

		for (cpu = 0; cpu < ncpus; cpu++) {
			val += perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, thread)->val;
			ena += perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, thread)->ena;
			run += perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, thread)->run;
		}

		if (prefix)
			fprintf(output, "%s", prefix);

		uval = val * counter->scale;

		if (nsec_counter(counter))
			nsec_printout(thread, 0, counter, uval);
		else
			abs_printout(thread, 0, counter, uval);

		if (!csv_output)
			print_noise(counter, 1.0);

		print_running(run, ena);
		fputc('\n', output);
	}
}

/*
 * Print out the results of a single counter:
 * aggregated counts in system-wide mode
 */
static void print_counter_aggr(struct perf_evsel *counter, char *prefix)
{
	struct perf_stat *ps = counter->priv;
	double avg = avg_stats(&ps->res_stats[0]);
	int scaled = counter->counts->scaled;
	double uval;
	double avg_enabled, avg_running;

	avg_enabled = avg_stats(&ps->res_stats[1]);
	avg_running = avg_stats(&ps->res_stats[2]);

	if (prefix)
		fprintf(output, "%s", prefix);

	if (scaled == -1 || !counter->supported) {
		fprintf(output, "%*s%s",
			csv_output ? 0 : 18,
			counter->supported ? CNTR_NOT_COUNTED : CNTR_NOT_SUPPORTED,
			csv_sep);
		fprintf(output, "%-*s%s",
			csv_output ? 0 : unit_width,
			counter->unit, csv_sep);
		fprintf(output, "%*s",
			csv_output ? 0 : -25,
			perf_evsel__name(counter));

		if (counter->cgrp)
			fprintf(output, "%s%s", csv_sep, counter->cgrp->name);

		print_running(avg_running, avg_enabled);
		fputc('\n', output);
		return;
	}

	uval = avg * counter->scale;

	if (nsec_counter(counter))
		nsec_printout(-1, 0, counter, uval);
	else
		abs_printout(-1, 0, counter, uval);

	print_noise(counter, avg);

	print_running(avg_running, avg_enabled);
	fprintf(output, "\n");
}

/*
 * Print out the results of a single counter:
 * does not use aggregated count in system-wide
 */
static void print_counter(struct perf_evsel *counter, char *prefix)
{
	u64 ena, run, val;
	double uval;
	int cpu;

	for (cpu = 0; cpu < perf_evsel__nr_cpus(counter); cpu++) {
		val = perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, 0)->val;
		ena = perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, 0)->ena;
		run = perf_counts(counter->counts, cpu, 0)->run;

		if (prefix)
			fprintf(output, "%s", prefix);

		if (run == 0 || ena == 0) {
			fprintf(output, "CPU%*d%s%*s%s",
				csv_output ? 0 : -4,
				perf_evsel__cpus(counter)->map[cpu], csv_sep,
				csv_output ? 0 : 18,
				counter->supported ? CNTR_NOT_COUNTED : CNTR_NOT_SUPPORTED,
				csv_sep);

				fprintf(output, "%-*s%s",
					csv_output ? 0 : unit_width,
					counter->unit, csv_sep);

				fprintf(output, "%*s",
					csv_output ? 0 : -25,
					perf_evsel__name(counter));

			if (counter->cgrp)
				fprintf(output, "%s%s",
					csv_sep, counter->cgrp->name);

			print_running(run, ena);
			fputc('\n', output);
			continue;
		}

		uval = val * counter->scale;

		if (nsec_counter(counter))
			nsec_printout(cpu, 0, counter, uval);
		else
			abs_printout(cpu, 0, counter, uval);

		if (!csv_output)
			print_noise(counter, 1.0);
		print_running(run, ena);

		fputc('\n', output);
	}
}

static void print_interval(char *prefix, struct timespec *ts)
{
	static int num_print_interval;

	sprintf(prefix, "%6lu.%09lu%s", ts->tv_sec, ts->tv_nsec, csv_sep);

	if (num_print_interval == 0 && !csv_output) {
		switch (aggr_mode) {
		case AGGR_SOCKET:
			fprintf(output, "#           time socket cpus             counts %*s events\n", unit_width, "unit");
			break;
		case AGGR_CORE:
			fprintf(output, "#           time core         cpus             counts %*s events\n", unit_width, "unit");
			break;
		case AGGR_NONE:
			fprintf(output, "#           time CPU                counts %*s events\n", unit_width, "unit");
			break;
		case AGGR_THREAD:
			fprintf(output, "#           time             comm-pid                  counts %*s events\n", unit_width, "unit");
			break;
		case AGGR_GLOBAL:
		default:
			fprintf(output, "#           time             counts %*s events\n", unit_width, "unit");
		}
	}

	if (++num_print_interval == 25)
		num_print_interval = 0;
}

static void print_header(int argc, const char **argv)
{
	int i;

	fflush(stdout);

	if (!csv_output) {
		fprintf(output, "\n");
		fprintf(output, " Performance counter stats for ");
		if (target.system_wide)
			fprintf(output, "\'system wide");
		else if (target.cpu_list)
			fprintf(output, "\'CPU(s) %s", target.cpu_list);
		else if (!target__has_task(&target)) {
			fprintf(output, "\'%s", argv[0]);
			for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
				fprintf(output, " %s", argv[i]);
		} else if (target.pid)
			fprintf(output, "process id \'%s", target.pid);
		else
			fprintf(output, "thread id \'%s", target.tid);

		fprintf(output, "\'");
		if (run_count > 1)
			fprintf(output, " (%d runs)", run_count);
		fprintf(output, ":\n\n");
	}
}

static void print_footer(void)
{
	if (!null_run)
		fprintf(output, "\n");
	fprintf(output, " %17.9f seconds time elapsed",
			avg_stats(&walltime_nsecs_stats)/1e9);
	if (run_count > 1) {
		fprintf(output, "                                        ");
		print_noise_pct(stddev_stats(&walltime_nsecs_stats),
				avg_stats(&walltime_nsecs_stats));
	}
	fprintf(output, "\n\n");
}

static void print_counters(struct timespec *ts, int argc, const char **argv)
{
	struct perf_evsel *counter;
	char buf[64], *prefix = NULL;

	if (interval)
		print_interval(prefix = buf, ts);
	else
		print_header(argc, argv);

	switch (aggr_mode) {
	case AGGR_CORE:
	case AGGR_SOCKET:
		print_aggr(prefix);
		break;
	case AGGR_THREAD:
		evlist__for_each(evsel_list, counter)
			print_aggr_thread(counter, prefix);
		break;
	case AGGR_GLOBAL:
		evlist__for_each(evsel_list, counter)
			print_counter_aggr(counter, prefix);
		break;
	case AGGR_NONE:
		evlist__for_each(evsel_list, counter)
			print_counter(counter, prefix);
		break;
	default:
		break;
	}

	if (!interval && !csv_output)
		print_footer();

	fflush(output);
}

static volatile int signr = -1;

static void skip_signal(int signo)
{
	if ((child_pid == -1) || interval)
		done = 1;

	signr = signo;
	/*
	 * render child_pid harmless
	 * won't send SIGTERM to a random
	 * process in case of race condition
	 * and fast PID recycling
	 */
	child_pid = -1;
}

static void sig_atexit(void)
{
	sigset_t set, oset;

	/*
	 * avoid race condition with SIGCHLD handler
	 * in skip_signal() which is modifying child_pid
	 * goal is to avoid send SIGTERM to a random
	 * process
	 */
	sigemptyset(&set);
	sigaddset(&set, SIGCHLD);
	sigprocmask(SIG_BLOCK, &set, &oset);

	if (child_pid != -1)
		kill(child_pid, SIGTERM);

	sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &oset, NULL);

	if (signr == -1)
		return;

	signal(signr, SIG_DFL);
	kill(getpid(), signr);
}

static int stat__set_big_num(const struct option *opt __maybe_unused,
			     const char *s __maybe_unused, int unset)
{
	big_num_opt = unset ? 0 : 1;
	return 0;
}

static int perf_stat_init_aggr_mode(void)
{
	switch (aggr_mode) {
	case AGGR_SOCKET:
		if (cpu_map__build_socket_map(evsel_list->cpus, &aggr_map)) {
			perror("cannot build socket map");
			return -1;
		}
		aggr_get_id = cpu_map__get_socket;
		break;
	case AGGR_CORE:
		if (cpu_map__build_core_map(evsel_list->cpus, &aggr_map)) {
			perror("cannot build core map");
			return -1;
		}
		aggr_get_id = cpu_map__get_core;
		break;
	case AGGR_NONE:
	case AGGR_GLOBAL:
	case AGGR_THREAD:
	default:
		break;
	}
	return 0;
}

/*
 * Add default attributes, if there were no attributes specified or
 * if -d/--detailed, -d -d or -d -d -d is used:
 */
static int add_default_attributes(void)
{
	struct perf_event_attr default_attrs[] = {

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_SOFTWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_SW_TASK_CLOCK		},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_SOFTWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_SW_CONTEXT_SWITCHES	},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_SOFTWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_SW_CPU_MIGRATIONS		},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_SOFTWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_SW_PAGE_FAULTS		},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_HW_CPU_CYCLES		},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_HW_STALLED_CYCLES_FRONTEND	},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_HW_STALLED_CYCLES_BACKEND	},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_HW_INSTRUCTIONS		},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_HW_BRANCH_INSTRUCTIONS	},
  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE, .config = PERF_COUNT_HW_BRANCH_MISSES		},

};

/*
 * Detailed stats (-d), covering the L1 and last level data caches:
 */
	struct perf_event_attr detailed_attrs[] = {

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_L1D		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_ACCESS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_L1D		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_MISS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_LL			<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_ACCESS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_LL			<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_MISS	<< 16)				},
};

/*
 * Very detailed stats (-d -d), covering the instruction cache and the TLB caches:
 */
	struct perf_event_attr very_detailed_attrs[] = {

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_L1I		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_ACCESS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_L1I		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_MISS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_DTLB		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_ACCESS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_DTLB		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_MISS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_ITLB		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_ACCESS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_ITLB		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_READ		<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_MISS	<< 16)				},

};

/*
 * Very, very detailed stats (-d -d -d), adding prefetch events:
 */
	struct perf_event_attr very_very_detailed_attrs[] = {

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_L1D		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_PREFETCH	<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_ACCESS	<< 16)				},

  { .type = PERF_TYPE_HW_CACHE,
    .config =
	 PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_L1D		<<  0  |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_OP_PREFETCH	<<  8) |
	(PERF_COUNT_HW_CACHE_RESULT_MISS	<< 16)				},
};

	/* Set attrs if no event is selected and !null_run: */
	if (null_run)
		return 0;

	if (transaction_run) {
		int err;
		if (pmu_have_event("cpu", "cycles-ct") &&
		    pmu_have_event("cpu", "el-start"))
			err = parse_events(evsel_list, transaction_attrs, NULL);
		else
			err = parse_events(evsel_list, transaction_limited_attrs, NULL);
		if (err) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Cannot set up transaction events\n");
			return -1;
		}
		return 0;
	}

	if (!evsel_list->nr_entries) {
		if (perf_evlist__add_default_attrs(evsel_list, default_attrs) < 0)
			return -1;
	}

	/* Detailed events get appended to the event list: */

	if (detailed_run <  1)
		return 0;

	/* Append detailed run extra attributes: */
	if (perf_evlist__add_default_attrs(evsel_list, detailed_attrs) < 0)
		return -1;

	if (detailed_run < 2)
		return 0;

	/* Append very detailed run extra attributes: */
	if (perf_evlist__add_default_attrs(evsel_list, very_detailed_attrs) < 0)
		return -1;

	if (detailed_run < 3)
		return 0;

	/* Append very, very detailed run extra attributes: */
	return perf_evlist__add_default_attrs(evsel_list, very_very_detailed_attrs);
}

int cmd_stat(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix __maybe_unused)
{
	bool append_file = false;
	int output_fd = 0;
	const char *output_name	= NULL;
	const struct option options[] = {
	OPT_BOOLEAN('T', "transaction", &transaction_run,
		    "hardware transaction statistics"),
	OPT_CALLBACK('e', "event", &evsel_list, "event",
		     "event selector. use 'perf list' to list available events",
		     parse_events_option),
	OPT_CALLBACK(0, "filter", &evsel_list, "filter",
		     "event filter", parse_filter),
	OPT_BOOLEAN('i', "no-inherit", &no_inherit,
		    "child tasks do not inherit counters"),
	OPT_STRING('p', "pid", &target.pid, "pid",
		   "stat events on existing process id"),
	OPT_STRING('t', "tid", &target.tid, "tid",
		   "stat events on existing thread id"),
	OPT_BOOLEAN('a', "all-cpus", &target.system_wide,
		    "system-wide collection from all CPUs"),
	OPT_BOOLEAN('g', "group", &group,
		    "put the counters into a counter group"),
	OPT_BOOLEAN('c', "scale", &scale, "scale/normalize counters"),
	OPT_INCR('v', "verbose", &verbose,
		    "be more verbose (show counter open errors, etc)"),
	OPT_INTEGER('r', "repeat", &run_count,
		    "repeat command and print average + stddev (max: 100, forever: 0)"),
	OPT_BOOLEAN('n', "null", &null_run,
		    "null run - dont start any counters"),
	OPT_INCR('d', "detailed", &detailed_run,
		    "detailed run - start a lot of events"),
	OPT_BOOLEAN('S', "sync", &sync_run,
		    "call sync() before starting a run"),
	OPT_CALLBACK_NOOPT('B', "big-num", NULL, NULL,
			   "print large numbers with thousands\' separators",
			   stat__set_big_num),
	OPT_STRING('C', "cpu", &target.cpu_list, "cpu",
		    "list of cpus to monitor in system-wide"),
	OPT_SET_UINT('A', "no-aggr", &aggr_mode,
		    "disable CPU count aggregation", AGGR_NONE),
	OPT_STRING('x', "field-separator", &csv_sep, "separator",
		   "print counts with custom separator"),
	OPT_CALLBACK('G', "cgroup", &evsel_list, "name",
		     "monitor event in cgroup name only", parse_cgroups),
	OPT_STRING('o', "output", &output_name, "file", "output file name"),
	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "append", &append_file, "append to the output file"),
	OPT_INTEGER(0, "log-fd", &output_fd,
		    "log output to fd, instead of stderr"),
	OPT_STRING(0, "pre", &pre_cmd, "command",
			"command to run prior to the measured command"),
	OPT_STRING(0, "post", &post_cmd, "command",
			"command to run after to the measured command"),
	OPT_UINTEGER('I', "interval-print", &interval,
		    "print counts at regular interval in ms (>= 100)"),
	OPT_SET_UINT(0, "per-socket", &aggr_mode,
		     "aggregate counts per processor socket", AGGR_SOCKET),
	OPT_SET_UINT(0, "per-core", &aggr_mode,
		     "aggregate counts per physical processor core", AGGR_CORE),
	OPT_SET_UINT(0, "per-thread", &aggr_mode,
		     "aggregate counts per thread", AGGR_THREAD),
	OPT_UINTEGER('D', "delay", &initial_delay,
		     "ms to wait before starting measurement after program start"),
	OPT_END()
	};
	const char * const stat_usage[] = {
		"perf stat [<options>] [<command>]",
		NULL
	};
	int status = -EINVAL, run_idx;
	const char *mode;

	setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

	evsel_list = perf_evlist__new();
	if (evsel_list == NULL)
		return -ENOMEM;

	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, options, stat_usage,
		PARSE_OPT_STOP_AT_NON_OPTION);

	output = stderr;
	if (output_name && strcmp(output_name, "-"))
		output = NULL;

	if (output_name && output_fd) {
		fprintf(stderr, "cannot use both --output and --log-fd\n");
		parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "o", 1);
		parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "log-fd", 0);
		goto out;
	}

	if (output_fd < 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "argument to --log-fd must be a > 0\n");
		parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "log-fd", 0);
		goto out;
	}

	if (!output) {
		struct timespec tm;
		mode = append_file ? "a" : "w";

		output = fopen(output_name, mode);
		if (!output) {
			perror("failed to create output file");
			return -1;
		}
		clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME, &tm);
		fprintf(output, "# started on %s\n", ctime(&tm.tv_sec));
	} else if (output_fd > 0) {
		mode = append_file ? "a" : "w";
		output = fdopen(output_fd, mode);
		if (!output) {
			perror("Failed opening logfd");
			return -errno;
		}
	}

	if (csv_sep) {
		csv_output = true;
		if (!strcmp(csv_sep, "\\t"))
			csv_sep = "\t";
	} else
		csv_sep = DEFAULT_SEPARATOR;

	/*
	 * let the spreadsheet do the pretty-printing
	 */
	if (csv_output) {
		/* User explicitly passed -B? */
		if (big_num_opt == 1) {
			fprintf(stderr, "-B option not supported with -x\n");
			parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "B", 1);
			parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "x", 1);
			goto out;
		} else /* Nope, so disable big number formatting */
			big_num = false;
	} else if (big_num_opt == 0) /* User passed --no-big-num */
		big_num = false;

	if (!argc && target__none(&target))
		usage_with_options(stat_usage, options);

	if (run_count < 0) {
		pr_err("Run count must be a positive number\n");
		parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "r", 1);
		goto out;
	} else if (run_count == 0) {
		forever = true;
		run_count = 1;
	}

	if ((aggr_mode == AGGR_THREAD) && !target__has_task(&target)) {
		fprintf(stderr, "The --per-thread option is only available "
			"when monitoring via -p -t options.\n");
		parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "p", 1);
		parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "t", 1);
		goto out;
	}

	/*
	 * no_aggr, cgroup are for system-wide only
	 * --per-thread is aggregated per thread, we dont mix it with cpu mode
	 */
	if (((aggr_mode != AGGR_GLOBAL && aggr_mode != AGGR_THREAD) || nr_cgroups) &&
	    !target__has_cpu(&target)) {
		fprintf(stderr, "both cgroup and no-aggregation "
			"modes only available in system-wide mode\n");

		parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "G", 1);
		parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "A", 1);
		parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "a", 1);
		goto out;
	}

	if (add_default_attributes())
		goto out;

	target__validate(&target);

	if (perf_evlist__create_maps(evsel_list, &target) < 0) {
		if (target__has_task(&target)) {
			pr_err("Problems finding threads of monitor\n");
			parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "p", 1);
			parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "t", 1);
		} else if (target__has_cpu(&target)) {
			perror("failed to parse CPUs map");
			parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "C", 1);
			parse_options_usage(NULL, options, "a", 1);
		}
		goto out;
	}

	/*
	 * Initialize thread_map with comm names,
	 * so we could print it out on output.
	 */
	if (aggr_mode == AGGR_THREAD)
		thread_map__read_comms(evsel_list->threads);

	if (interval && interval < 100) {
		pr_err("print interval must be >= 100ms\n");
		parse_options_usage(stat_usage, options, "I", 1);
		goto out;
	}

	if (perf_evlist__alloc_stats(evsel_list, interval))
		goto out;

	if (perf_stat_init_aggr_mode())
		goto out;

	/*
	 * We dont want to block the signals - that would cause
	 * child tasks to inherit that and Ctrl-C would not work.
	 * What we want is for Ctrl-C to work in the exec()-ed
	 * task, but being ignored by perf stat itself:
	 */
	atexit(sig_atexit);
	if (!forever)
		signal(SIGINT,  skip_signal);
	signal(SIGCHLD, skip_signal);
	signal(SIGALRM, skip_signal);
	signal(SIGABRT, skip_signal);

	status = 0;
	for (run_idx = 0; forever || run_idx < run_count; run_idx++) {
		if (run_count != 1 && verbose)
			fprintf(output, "[ perf stat: executing run #%d ... ]\n",
				run_idx + 1);

		status = run_perf_stat(argc, argv);
		if (forever && status != -1) {
			print_counters(NULL, argc, argv);
			perf_stat__reset_stats();
		}
	}

	if (!forever && status != -1 && !interval)
		print_counters(NULL, argc, argv);

	perf_evlist__free_stats(evsel_list);
out:
	perf_evlist__delete(evsel_list);
	return status;
}