2020 internships

U-Boot, Linux, Elixir

2020 internships

U-Boot, Linux, Elixir

Bootlin logo

Elixir Cross Referencer

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
==============================================================
Advanced Linux Sound Architecture - Driver Configuration guide
==============================================================


Kernel Configuration
====================

To enable ALSA support you need at least to build the kernel with
primary sound card support (``CONFIG_SOUND``).  Since ALSA can emulate
OSS, you don't have to choose any of the OSS modules.

Enable "OSS API emulation" (``CONFIG_SND_OSSEMUL``) and both OSS mixer
and PCM supports if you want to run OSS applications with ALSA.

If you want to support the WaveTable functionality on cards such as
SB Live! then you need to enable "Sequencer support"
(``CONFIG_SND_SEQUENCER``).

To make ALSA debug messages more verbose, enable the "Verbose printk"
and "Debug" options.  To check for memory leaks, turn on "Debug memory"
too.  "Debug detection" will add checks for the detection of cards.

Please note that all the ALSA ISA drivers support the Linux isapnp API
(if the card supports ISA PnP).  You don't need to configure the cards
using isapnptools.


Module parameters
=================

The user can load modules with options. If the module supports more than
one card and you have more than one card of the same type then you can
specify multiple values for the option separated by commas.


Module snd
----------

The core ALSA module.  It is used by all ALSA card drivers.
It takes the following options which have global effects.

major
    major number for sound driver;
    Default: 116
cards_limit
    limiting card index for auto-loading (1-8);
    Default: 1;
    For auto-loading more than one card, specify this option
    together with snd-card-X aliases.
slots
    Reserve the slot index for the given driver;
    This option takes multiple strings.
    See `Module Autoloading Support`_ section for details.
debug
    Specifies the debug message level;
    (0 = disable debug prints, 1 = normal debug messages,
    2 = verbose debug messages);
    This option appears only when ``CONFIG_SND_DEBUG=y``.
    This option can be dynamically changed via sysfs
    /sys/modules/snd/parameters/debug file.
  
Module snd-pcm-oss
------------------

The PCM OSS emulation module.
This module takes options which change the mapping of devices.

dsp_map
    PCM device number maps assigned to the 1st OSS device;
    Default: 0
adsp_map
    PCM device number maps assigned to the 2st OSS device;
    Default: 1
nonblock_open
    Don't block opening busy PCM devices;
    Default: 1

For example, when ``dsp_map=2``, /dev/dsp will be mapped to PCM #2 of
the card #0.  Similarly, when ``adsp_map=0``, /dev/adsp will be mapped
to PCM #0 of the card #0.
For changing the second or later card, specify the option with
commas, such like ``dsp_map=0,1``.

``nonblock_open`` option is used to change the behavior of the PCM
regarding opening the device.  When this option is non-zero,
opening a busy OSS PCM device won't be blocked but return
immediately with EAGAIN (just like O_NONBLOCK flag).
    
Module snd-rawmidi
------------------

This module takes options which change the mapping of devices.
similar to those of the snd-pcm-oss module.

midi_map
    MIDI device number maps assigned to the 1st OSS device;
    Default: 0
amidi_map
    MIDI device number maps assigned to the 2st OSS device;
    Default: 1

Common parameters for top sound card modules
--------------------------------------------

Each of top level sound card module takes the following options.

index
    index (slot #) of sound card;
    Values: 0 through 31 or negative;
    If nonnegative, assign that index number;
    if negative, interpret as a bitmask of permissible indices;
    the first free permitted index is assigned;
    Default: -1
id
    card ID (identifier or name);
    Can be up to 15 characters long;
    Default: the card type;
    A directory by this name is created under /proc/asound/
    containing information about the card;
    This ID can be used instead of the index number in
    identifying the card
enable
    enable card;
    Default: enabled, for PCI and ISA PnP cards

Module snd-adlib
----------------

Module for AdLib FM cards.

port
    port # for OPL chip

This module supports multiple cards. It does not support autoprobe, so
the port must be specified. For actual AdLib FM cards it will be 0x388.
Note that this card does not have PCM support and no mixer; only FM
synthesis.

Make sure you have ``sbiload`` from the alsa-tools package available and,
after loading the module, find out the assigned ALSA sequencer port
number through ``sbiload -l``.

Example output:
::

      Port     Client name                       Port name
      64:0     OPL2 FM synth                     OPL2 FM Port

Load the ``std.sb`` and ``drums.sb`` patches also supplied by ``sbiload``:
::

      sbiload -p 64:0 std.sb drums.sb

If you use this driver to drive an OPL3, you can use ``std.o3`` and ``drums.o3``
instead. To have the card produce sound, use ``aplaymidi`` from alsa-utils:
::

      aplaymidi -p 64:0 foo.mid

Module snd-ad1816a
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Analog Devices AD1816A/AD1815 ISA chips.

clockfreq
    Clock frequency for AD1816A chip (default = 0, 33000Hz)
    
This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and PnP.
    
Module snd-ad1848
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on AD1848/AD1847/CS4248 ISA chips.

port
    port # for AD1848 chip
irq
    IRQ # for AD1848  chip
dma1
    DMA # for AD1848 chip (0,1,3)
    
This module supports multiple cards.  It does not support autoprobe
thus main port must be specified!!! Other ports are optional.
    
The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ad1889
-----------------

Module for Analog Devices AD1889 chips.

ac97_quirk
    AC'97 workaround for strange hardware;
    See the description of intel8x0 module for details.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-ali5451
------------------

Module for ALi M5451 PCI chip.

pcm_channels
    Number of hardware channels assigned for PCM
spdif
    Support SPDIF I/O;
    Default: disabled

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-als100
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on Avance Logic ALS100/ALS120 ISA chips.

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and PnP.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-als300
-----------------

Module for Avance Logic ALS300 and ALS300+

This module supports multiple cards.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-als4000
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Avance Logic ALS4000 PCI chip.

joystick_port
    port # for legacy joystick support;
    0 = disabled (default), 1 = auto-detect
    
This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and PnP.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-asihpi
-----------------

Module for AudioScience ASI soundcards

enable_hpi_hwdep
    enable HPI hwdep for AudioScience soundcard

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-atiixp
-----------------

Module for ATI IXP 150/200/250/400 AC97 controllers.

ac97_clock
    AC'97 clock (default = 48000)
ac97_quirk
    AC'97 workaround for strange hardware;
    See `AC97 Quirk Option`_ section below.
ac97_codec
    Workaround to specify which AC'97 codec instead of probing.
    If this works for you file a bug with your `lspci -vn` output.
    (-2 = Force probing, -1 = Default behavior, 0-2 = Use the
    specified codec.)
spdif_aclink
    S/PDIF transfer over AC-link (default = 1)

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

ATI IXP has two different methods to control SPDIF output.  One is
over AC-link and another is over the "direct" SPDIF output.  The
implementation depends on the motherboard, and you'll need to
choose the correct one via spdif_aclink module option.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-atiixp-modem
-----------------------

Module for ATI IXP 150/200/250 AC97 modem controllers.

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-au8810, snd-au8820, snd-au8830
-----------------------------------------

Module for Aureal Vortex, Vortex2 and Advantage device.

pcifix
    Control PCI workarounds;
    0 = Disable all workarounds,
    1 = Force the PCI latency of the Aureal card to 0xff,
    2 = Force the Extend PCI#2 Internal Master for Efficient
    Handling of Dummy Requests on the VIA KT133 AGP Bridge,
    3 = Force both settings,
    255 = Autodetect what is required (default)

This module supports all ADB PCM channels, ac97 mixer, SPDIF, hardware
EQ, mpu401, gameport. A3D and wavetable support are still in development.
Development and reverse engineering work is being coordinated at
http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/openvortex/
SPDIF output has a copy of the AC97 codec output, unless you use the
``spdif`` pcm device, which allows raw data passthru.
The hardware EQ hardware and SPDIF is only present in the Vortex2 and 
Advantage.

Note: Some ALSA mixer applications don't handle the SPDIF sample rate 
control correctly. If you have problems regarding this, try
another ALSA compliant mixer (alsamixer works).

Module snd-azt1605
------------------

Module for Aztech Sound Galaxy soundcards based on the Aztech AZT1605
chipset.

port
    port # for BASE (0x220,0x240,0x260,0x280)
wss_port
    port # for WSS (0x530,0x604,0xe80,0xf40)
irq
    IRQ # for WSS (7,9,10,11)
dma1
    DMA # for WSS playback (0,1,3)
dma2
    DMA # for WSS capture (0,1), -1 = disabled (default)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x330), -1 = disabled (default)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (3,5,7,9), -1 = disabled (default)
fm_port
    port # for OPL3 (0x388), -1 = disabled (default)

This module supports multiple cards. It does not support autoprobe:
``port``, ``wss_port``, ``irq`` and ``dma1`` have to be specified.
The other values are optional.

``port`` needs to match the BASE ADDRESS jumper on the card (0x220 or 0x240)
or the value stored in the card's EEPROM for cards that have an EEPROM and
their "CONFIG MODE" jumper set to "EEPROM SETTING". The other values can
be chosen freely from the options enumerated above.

If ``dma2`` is specified and different from ``dma1``, the card will operate in
full-duplex mode. When ``dma1=3``, only ``dma2=0`` is valid and the only way to
enable capture since only channels 0 and 1 are available for capture.

Generic settings are ``port=0x220 wss_port=0x530 irq=10 dma1=1 dma2=0
mpu_port=0x330 mpu_irq=9 fm_port=0x388``.

Whatever IRQ and DMA channels you pick, be sure to reserve them for
legacy ISA in your BIOS.

Module snd-azt2316
------------------

Module for Aztech Sound Galaxy soundcards based on the Aztech AZT2316
chipset.

port
    port # for BASE (0x220,0x240,0x260,0x280)
wss_port
    port # for WSS (0x530,0x604,0xe80,0xf40)
irq
    IRQ # for WSS (7,9,10,11)
dma1
    DMA # for WSS playback (0,1,3)
dma2
    DMA # for WSS capture (0,1), -1 = disabled (default)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x330), -1 = disabled (default)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (5,7,9,10), -1 = disabled (default)
fm_port
    port # for OPL3 (0x388), -1 = disabled (default)

This module supports multiple cards. It does not support autoprobe:
``port``, ``wss_port``, ``irq`` and ``dma1`` have to be specified.
The other values are optional.

``port`` needs to match the BASE ADDRESS jumper on the card (0x220 or 0x240)
or the value stored in the card's EEPROM for cards that have an EEPROM and
their "CONFIG MODE" jumper set to "EEPROM SETTING". The other values can
be chosen freely from the options enumerated above.

If ``dma2`` is specified and different from ``dma1``, the card will operate in
full-duplex mode. When ``dma1=3``, only ``dma2=0`` is valid and the only way to
enable capture since only channels 0 and 1 are available for capture.

Generic settings are ``port=0x220 wss_port=0x530 irq=10 dma1=1 dma2=0
mpu_port=0x330 mpu_irq=9 fm_port=0x388``.

Whatever IRQ and DMA channels you pick, be sure to reserve them for
legacy ISA in your BIOS.

Module snd-aw2
--------------

Module for Audiowerk2 sound card

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-azt2320
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Aztech System AZT2320 ISA chip (PnP only).

This module supports multiple cards, PnP and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-azt3328
------------------

Module for sound cards based on Aztech AZF3328 PCI chip.

joystick
    Enable joystick (default off)

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-bt87x
----------------

Module for video cards based on Bt87x chips.

digital_rate
    Override the default digital rate (Hz)
load_all
    Load the driver even if the card model isn't known

This module supports multiple cards.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

Module snd-ca0106
-----------------

Module for Creative Audigy LS and SB Live 24bit

This module supports multiple cards.


Module snd-cmi8330
------------------

Module for sound cards based on C-Media CMI8330 ISA chips.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

wssport
    port # for CMI8330 chip (WSS)
wssirq
    IRQ # for CMI8330 chip (WSS)
wssdma
    first DMA # for CMI8330 chip (WSS)
sbport
    port # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)
sbirq
    IRQ # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)
sbdma8
    8bit DMA # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)
sbdma16
    16bit DMA # for CMI8330 chip (SB16)
fmport
    (optional) OPL3 I/O port
mpuport
    (optional) MPU401 I/O port
mpuirq
    (optional) MPU401 irq #

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cmipci
-----------------

Module for C-Media CMI8338/8738/8768/8770 PCI sound cards.

mpu_port
    port address of MIDI interface (8338 only):
    0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330 = legacy port,
    0 = disable (default)
fm_port
    port address of OPL-3 FM synthesizer (8x38 only):
    0x388 = legacy port,
    1 = integrated PCI port (default on 8738),
    0 = disable
soft_ac3
    Software-conversion of raw SPDIF packets (model 033 only) (default = 1)
joystick_port
    Joystick port address (0 = disable, 1 = auto-detect)

This module supports autoprobe and multiple cards.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs4231
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on CS4231 ISA chips.

port
    port # for CS4231 chip
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (optional), -1 = disable
irq
    IRQ # for CS4231 chip
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 UART
dma1
    first DMA # for CS4231 chip
dma2
    second DMA # for CS4231 chip

This module supports multiple cards. This module does not support autoprobe
thus main port must be specified!!! Other ports are optional.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs4236
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on CS4232/CS4232A,
CS4235/CS4236/CS4236B/CS4237B/CS4238B/CS4239 ISA chips.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    port # for CS4236 chip (PnP setup - 0x534)
cport
    control port # for CS4236 chip (PnP setup - 0x120,0x210,0xf00)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (PnP setup - 0x300), -1 = disable
fm_port
    FM port # for CS4236 chip (PnP setup - 0x388), -1 = disable
irq
    IRQ # for CS4236 chip (5,7,9,11,12,15)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (9,11,12,15)
dma1
    first DMA # for CS4236 chip (0,1,3)
dma2
    second DMA # for CS4236 chip (0,1,3), -1 = disable

This module supports multiple cards. This module does not support autoprobe
(if ISA PnP is not used) thus main port and control port must be
specified!!! Other ports are optional.

The power-management is supported.

This module is aliased as snd-cs4232 since it provides the old
snd-cs4232 functionality, too.

Module snd-cs4281
-----------------

Module for Cirrus Logic CS4281 soundchip.

dual_codec
    Secondary codec ID (0 = disable, default)

This module supports multiple cards.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs46xx
-----------------

Module for PCI sound cards based on CS4610/CS4612/CS4614/CS4615/CS4622/
CS4624/CS4630/CS4280 PCI chips.

external_amp
    Force to enable external amplifier.
thinkpad
    Force to enable Thinkpad's CLKRUN control.
mmap_valid
    Support OSS mmap mode (default = 0).

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.
Usually external amp and CLKRUN controls are detected automatically
from PCI sub vendor/device ids.  If they don't work, give the options
above explicitly.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-cs5530
-----------------

Module for Cyrix/NatSemi Geode 5530 chip. 

Module snd-cs5535audio
----------------------

Module for multifunction CS5535 companion PCI device

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ctxfi
----------------

Module for Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi boards (20k1 / 20k2 chips)

* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Titanium Fatal1ty Champion Series
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Titanium Fatal1ty Professional Series
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Titanium Professional Audio
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Titanium
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Elite Pro
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Platinum
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Fatal1ty
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi XtremeGamer
* Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi XtremeMusic
	
reference_rate
    reference sample rate, 44100 or 48000 (default)
multiple
    multiple to ref. sample rate, 1 or 2 (default)
subsystem
    override the PCI SSID for probing;
    the value consists of SSVID << 16 | SSDID.
    The default is zero, which means no override.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-darla20
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Darla20

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-darla24
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Darla24

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-dt019x
-----------------

Module for Diamond Technologies DT-019X / Avance Logic ALS-007 (PnP
only)

This module supports multiple cards.  This module is enabled only with
ISA PnP support.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-dummy
----------------

Module for the dummy sound card. This "card" doesn't do any output
or input, but you may use this module for any application which
requires a sound card (like RealPlayer).

pcm_devs
    Number of PCM devices assigned to each card (default = 1, up to 4)
pcm_substreams
    Number of PCM substreams assigned to each PCM (default = 8, up to 128)
hrtimer
    Use hrtimer (=1, default) or system timer (=0)
fake_buffer
    Fake buffer allocations (default = 1)

When multiple PCM devices are created, snd-dummy gives different
behavior to each PCM device:
* 0 = interleaved with mmap support
* 1 = non-interleaved with mmap support
* 2 = interleaved without mmap 
* 3 = non-interleaved without mmap

As default, snd-dummy drivers doesn't allocate the real buffers
but either ignores read/write or mmap a single dummy page to all
buffer pages, in order to save the resources.  If your apps need
the read/ written buffer data to be consistent, pass fake_buffer=0
option.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-echo3g
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio 3G cards (Gina3G/Layla3G)

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-emu10k1
------------------

Module for EMU10K1/EMU10k2 based PCI sound cards.

* Sound Blaster Live!
* Sound Blaster PCI 512
* Emu APS (partially supported)
* Sound Blaster Audigy
	
extin
    bitmap of available external inputs for FX8010 (see bellow)
extout
    bitmap of available external outputs for FX8010 (see bellow)
seq_ports
    allocated sequencer ports (4 by default)
max_synth_voices
    limit of voices used for wavetable (64 by default)
max_buffer_size
    specifies the maximum size of wavetable/pcm buffers given in MB
    unit.  Default value is 128.
enable_ir
    enable IR

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Input & Output configurations 			[extin/extout]
* Creative Card wo/Digital out			[0x0003/0x1f03]
* Creative Card w/Digital out			[0x0003/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card w/Digital CD in			[0x000f/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card wo/Digital out + LiveDrive	[0x3fc3/0x1fc3]
* Creative Card w/Digital out + LiveDrive	[0x3fc3/0x1fcf]
* Creative Card w/Digital CD in + LiveDrive	[0x3fcf/0x1fcf]
* Creative Card wo/Digital out + Digital I/O 2  [0x0fc3/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card w/Digital out + Digital I/O 2	[0x0fc3/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card w/Digital CD in + Digital I/O 2	[0x0fcf/0x1f0f]
* Creative Card 5.1/w Digital out + LiveDrive	[0x3fc3/0x1fff]
* Creative Card 5.1 (c) 2003			[0x3fc3/0x7cff]
* Creative Card all ins and outs		[0x3fff/0x7fff]
  
The power-management is supported.
  
Module snd-emu10k1x
-------------------

Module for Creative Emu10k1X (SB Live Dell OEM version)

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-ens1370
------------------

Module for Ensoniq AudioPCI ES1370 PCI sound cards.

* SoundBlaster PCI 64
* SoundBlaster PCI 128
    
joystick
    Enable joystick (default off)
  
This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ens1371
------------------

Module for Ensoniq AudioPCI ES1371 PCI sound cards.

* SoundBlaster PCI 64
* SoundBlaster PCI 128
* SoundBlaster Vibra PCI
      
joystick_port
    port # for joystick (0x200,0x208,0x210,0x218), 0 = disable
    (default), 1 = auto-detect
  
This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-es1688
-----------------

Module for ESS AudioDrive ES-1688 and ES-688 sound cards.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 port (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330), -1 = disable (default)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 port (5,7,9,10)
fm_port
    port # for OPL3 (option; share the same port as default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following additional options are available:

port
    port # for ES-1688 chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
irq
    IRQ # for ES-1688 chip (5,7,9,10)
dma8
    DMA # for ES-1688 chip (0,1,3)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe (without MPU-401 port)
and PnP with the ES968 chip.

Module snd-es18xx
-----------------

Module for ESS AudioDrive ES-18xx sound cards.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    port # for ES-18xx chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 port (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330), -1 = disable (default)
fm_port
    port # for FM (optional, not used)
irq
    IRQ # for ES-18xx chip (5,7,9,10)
dma1
    first DMA # for ES-18xx chip (0,1,3)
dma2
    first DMA # for ES-18xx chip (0,1,3)

This module supports multiple cards, ISA PnP and autoprobe (without MPU-401
port if native ISA PnP routines are not used).
When ``dma2`` is equal with ``dma1``, the driver works as half-duplex.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-es1938
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on ESS Solo-1 (ES1938,ES1946) chips.

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-es1968
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on ESS Maestro-1/2/2E (ES1968/ES1978) chips.

total_bufsize
    total buffer size in kB (1-4096kB)
pcm_substreams_p
    playback channels (1-8, default=2)
pcm_substreams_c
    capture channels (1-8, default=0)
clock
    clock (0 = auto-detection)
use_pm
    support the power-management (0 = off, 1 = on, 2 = auto (default))
enable_mpu
    enable MPU401 (0 = off, 1 = on, 2 = auto (default))
joystick
    enable joystick (default off)       

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-fm801
----------------

Module for ForteMedia FM801 based PCI sound cards.

tea575x_tuner
    Enable TEA575x tuner;
    1 = MediaForte 256-PCS,
    2 = MediaForte 256-PCPR,
    3 = MediaForte 64-PCR
    High 16-bits are video (radio) device number + 1;
    example: 0x10002 (MediaForte 256-PCPR, device 1)
	  
This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-gina20
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio Gina20

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-gina24
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio Gina24

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-gusclassic
---------------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound Classic sound card.

port
    port # for GF1 chip (0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
irq
    IRQ # for GF1 chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1
    DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7)
dma2
    DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)
joystick_dac
    0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
voices
    GF1 voices limit (14-32)
pcm_voices
    reserved PCM voices

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Module snd-gusextreme
---------------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound Extreme (Synergy ViperMax) sound card.

port
    port # for ES-1688 chip (0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
gf1_port
    port # for GF1 chip (0x210,0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260,0x270)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 port (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330), -1 = disable
irq
    IRQ # for ES-1688 chip (5,7,9,10)
gf1_irq
    IRQ # for GF1 chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 port (5,7,9,10)
dma8
    DMA # for ES-1688 chip (0,1,3)
dma1
    DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7)
joystick_dac
    0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
voices
    GF1 voices limit (14-32)
pcm_voices
    reserved PCM voices

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe (without MPU-401 port).

Module snd-gusmax
-----------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound MAX sound card.

port
    port # for GF1 chip (0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
irq
    IRQ # for GF1 chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1
    DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7)
dma2
    DMA # for GF1 chip (1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)
joystick_dac
    0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
voices
    GF1 voices limit (14-32)
pcm_voices
    reserved PCM voices

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Module snd-hda-intel
--------------------

Module for Intel HD Audio (ICH6, ICH6M, ESB2, ICH7, ICH8, ICH9, ICH10,
PCH, SCH), ATI SB450, SB600, R600, RS600, RS690, RS780, RV610, RV620,
RV630, RV635, RV670, RV770, VIA VT8251/VT8237A, SIS966, ULI M5461

[Multiple options for each card instance]

model
    force the model name
position_fix
    Fix DMA pointer;
    -1 = system default: choose appropriate one per controller hardware,
    0 = auto: falls back to LPIB when POSBUF doesn't work,
    1 = use LPIB,
    2 = POSBUF: use position buffer,
    3 = VIACOMBO: VIA-specific workaround for capture,
    4 = COMBO: use LPIB for playback, auto for capture stream
probe_mask
    Bitmask to probe codecs (default = -1, meaning all slots);
    When the bit 8 (0x100) is set, the lower 8 bits are used
    as the "fixed" codec slots; i.e. the driver probes the
    slots regardless what hardware reports back
probe_only
    Only probing and no codec initialization (default=off);
    Useful to check the initial codec status for debugging
bdl_pos_adj
    Specifies the DMA IRQ timing delay in samples.
    Passing -1 will make the driver to choose the appropriate
    value based on the controller chip.
patch
    Specifies the early "patch" files to modify the HD-audio setup
    before initializing the codecs.
    This option is available only when ``CONFIG_SND_HDA_PATCH_LOADER=y``
    is set.  See hd-audio/notes.rst for details.
beep_mode
    Selects the beep registration mode (0=off, 1=on);
    default value is set via ``CONFIG_SND_HDA_INPUT_BEEP_MODE`` kconfig.

[Single (global) options]

single_cmd
    Use single immediate commands to communicate with codecs
    (for debugging only)
enable_msi
    Enable Message Signaled Interrupt (MSI) (default = off)
power_save
    Automatic power-saving timeout (in second, 0 = disable)
power_save_controller
    Reset HD-audio controller in power-saving mode (default = on)
align_buffer_size
    Force rounding of buffer/period sizes to multiples of 128 bytes.
    This is more efficient in terms of memory access but isn't
    required by the HDA spec and prevents users from specifying
    exact period/buffer sizes. (default = on)
snoop
    Enable/disable snooping (default = on)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

See hd-audio/notes.rst for more details about HD-audio driver.

Each codec may have a model table for different configurations.
If your machine isn't listed there, the default (usually minimal)
configuration is set up.  You can pass ``model=<name>`` option to
specify a certain model in such a case.  There are different
models depending on the codec chip.  The list of available models
is found in hd-audio/models.rst.

The model name ``generic`` is treated as a special case.  When this
model is given, the driver uses the generic codec parser without
"codec-patch".  It's sometimes good for testing and debugging.

If the default configuration doesn't work and one of the above
matches with your device, report it together with alsa-info.sh
output (with ``--no-upload`` option) to kernel bugzilla or alsa-devel
ML (see the section `Links and Addresses`_).

``power_save`` and ``power_save_controller`` options are for power-saving
mode.  See powersave.txt for details.

Note 2: If you get click noises on output, try the module option
``position_fix=1`` or ``2``.  ``position_fix=1`` will use the SD_LPIB
register value without FIFO size correction as the current
DMA pointer.  ``position_fix=2`` will make the driver to use
the position buffer instead of reading SD_LPIB register.
(Usually SD_LPIB register is more accurate than the
position buffer.)

``position_fix=3`` is specific to VIA devices.  The position
of the capture stream is checked from both LPIB and POSBUF
values.  ``position_fix=4`` is a combination mode, using LPIB
for playback and POSBUF for capture.

NB: If you get many ``azx_get_response timeout`` messages at
loading, it's likely a problem of interrupts (e.g. ACPI irq
routing).  Try to boot with options like ``pci=noacpi``.  Also, you
can try ``single_cmd=1`` module option.  This will switch the
communication method between HDA controller and codecs to the
single immediate commands instead of CORB/RIRB.  Basically, the
single command mode is provided only for BIOS, and you won't get
unsolicited events, too.  But, at least, this works independently
from the irq.  Remember this is a last resort, and should be
avoided as much as possible...

MORE NOTES ON ``azx_get_response timeout`` PROBLEMS:
On some hardware, you may need to add a proper probe_mask option
to avoid the ``azx_get_response timeout`` problem above, instead.
This occurs when the access to non-existing or non-working codec slot
(likely a modem one) causes a stall of the communication via HD-audio
bus.  You can see which codec slots are probed by enabling
``CONFIG_SND_DEBUG_VERBOSE``, or simply from the file name of the codec
proc files.  Then limit the slots to probe by probe_mask option.
For example, ``probe_mask=1`` means to probe only the first slot, and
``probe_mask=4`` means only the third slot.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-hdsp
---------------

Module for RME Hammerfall DSP audio interface(s)

This module supports multiple cards.

Note: The firmware data can be automatically loaded via hotplug
when ``CONFIG_FW_LOADER`` is set.  Otherwise, you need to load
the firmware via hdsploader utility included in alsa-tools
package.
The firmware data is found in alsa-firmware package.

Note: snd-page-alloc module does the job which snd-hammerfall-mem
module did formerly.  It will allocate the buffers in advance
when any HDSP cards are found.  To make the buffer
allocation sure, load snd-page-alloc module in the early
stage of boot sequence.  See `Early Buffer Allocation`_
section.

Module snd-hdspm
----------------

Module for RME HDSP MADI board.

precise_ptr
    Enable precise pointer, or disable.
line_outs_monitor
    Send playback streams to analog outs by default.
enable_monitor
    Enable Analog Out on Channel 63/64 by default.

See hdspm.txt for details.

Module snd-ice1712
------------------

Module for Envy24 (ICE1712) based PCI sound cards.

* MidiMan M Audio Delta 1010
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 1010LT
* MidiMan M Audio Delta DiO 2496
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 66
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 44
* MidiMan M Audio Delta 410
* MidiMan M Audio Audiophile 2496
* TerraTec EWS 88MT
* TerraTec EWS 88D
* TerraTec EWX 24/96
* TerraTec DMX 6Fire
* TerraTec Phase 88
* Hoontech SoundTrack DSP 24
* Hoontech SoundTrack DSP 24 Value
* Hoontech SoundTrack DSP 24 Media 7.1
* Event Electronics, EZ8
* Digigram VX442
* Lionstracs, Mediastaton
* Terrasoniq TS 88
			
model
    Use the given board model, one of the following:
    delta1010, dio2496, delta66, delta44, audiophile, delta410,
    delta1010lt, vx442, ewx2496, ews88mt, ews88mt_new, ews88d,
    dmx6fire, dsp24, dsp24_value, dsp24_71, ez8,
    phase88, mediastation
omni
    Omni I/O support for MidiMan M-Audio Delta44/66
cs8427_timeout
    reset timeout for the CS8427 chip (S/PDIF transceiver) in msec
    resolution, default value is 500 (0.5 sec)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.
Note: The consumer part is not used with all Envy24 based cards (for
example in the MidiMan Delta siree).

Note: The supported board is detected by reading EEPROM or PCI
SSID (if EEPROM isn't available).  You can override the
model by passing ``model`` module option in case that the
driver isn't configured properly or you want to try another
type for testing.

Module snd-ice1724
------------------

Module for Envy24HT (VT/ICE1724), Envy24PT (VT1720) based PCI sound cards.

* MidiMan M Audio Revolution 5.1
* MidiMan M Audio Revolution 7.1
* MidiMan M Audio Audiophile 192
* AMP Ltd AUDIO2000
* TerraTec Aureon 5.1 Sky
* TerraTec Aureon 7.1 Space
* TerraTec Aureon 7.1 Universe
* TerraTec Phase 22
* TerraTec Phase 28
* AudioTrak Prodigy 7.1
* AudioTrak Prodigy 7.1 LT
* AudioTrak Prodigy 7.1 XT
* AudioTrak Prodigy 7.1 HIFI
* AudioTrak Prodigy 7.1 HD2
* AudioTrak Prodigy 192
* Pontis MS300
* Albatron K8X800 Pro II 
* Chaintech ZNF3-150
* Chaintech ZNF3-250
* Chaintech 9CJS
* Chaintech AV-710
* Shuttle SN25P
* Onkyo SE-90PCI
* Onkyo SE-200PCI
* ESI Juli@
* ESI Maya44
* Hercules Fortissimo IV
* EGO-SYS WaveTerminal 192M
			
model
    Use the given board model, one of the following:
    revo51, revo71, amp2000, prodigy71, prodigy71lt,
    prodigy71xt, prodigy71hifi, prodigyhd2, prodigy192,
    juli, aureon51, aureon71, universe, ap192, k8x800,
    phase22, phase28, ms300, av710, se200pci, se90pci,
    fortissimo4, sn25p, WT192M, maya44
  
This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Note: The supported board is detected by reading EEPROM or PCI
SSID (if EEPROM isn't available).  You can override the
model by passing ``model`` module option in case that the
driver isn't configured properly or you want to try another
type for testing.

Module snd-indigo
-----------------

Module for Echoaudio Indigo

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-indigodj
-------------------

Module for Echoaudio Indigo DJ

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-indigoio
-------------------

Module for Echoaudio Indigo IO

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-intel8x0
-------------------

Module for AC'97 motherboards from Intel and compatibles.

* Intel i810/810E, i815, i820, i830, i84x, MX440 ICH5, ICH6, ICH7,
  6300ESB, ESB2 
* SiS 7012 (SiS 735)
* NVidia NForce, NForce2, NForce3, MCP04, CK804 CK8, CK8S, MCP501
* AMD AMD768, AMD8111
* ALi m5455
	  
ac97_clock
    AC'97 codec clock base (0 = auto-detect)
ac97_quirk
    AC'97 workaround for strange hardware;
    See `AC97 Quirk Option`_ section below.
buggy_irq
    Enable workaround for buggy interrupts on some motherboards
    (default yes on nForce chips, otherwise off)
buggy_semaphore
    Enable workaround for hardware with buggy semaphores (e.g. on some
    ASUS laptops) (default off)
spdif_aclink
    Use S/PDIF over AC-link instead of direct connection from the
    controller chip (0 = off, 1 = on, -1 = default)

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

Note: the latest driver supports auto-detection of chip clock.
if you still encounter too fast playback, specify the clock
explicitly via the module option ``ac97_clock=41194``.

Joystick/MIDI ports are not supported by this driver.  If your
motherboard has these devices, use the ns558 or snd-mpu401
modules, respectively.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-intel8x0m
--------------------

Module for Intel ICH (i8x0) chipset MC97 modems.

* Intel i810/810E, i815, i820, i830, i84x, MX440 ICH5, ICH6, ICH7
* SiS 7013 (SiS 735)
* NVidia NForce, NForce2, NForce2s, NForce3
* AMD AMD8111
* ALi m5455
	  
ac97_clock
    AC'97 codec clock base (0 = auto-detect)
  
This module supports one card and autoprobe.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-interwave
--------------------

Module for Gravis UltraSound PnP, Dynasonic 3-D/Pro, STB Sound Rage 32
and other sound cards based on AMD InterWave (tm) chip.

joystick_dac
    0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
midi
    1 = MIDI UART enable, 0 = MIDI UART disable (default)
pcm_voices
    reserved PCM voices for the synthesizer (default 2)
effect
    1 = InterWave effects enable (default 0); requires 8 voices
isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    port # for InterWave chip (0x210,0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
irq
    IRQ # for InterWave chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1
    DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7)
dma2
    DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and ISA PnP.

Module snd-interwave-stb
------------------------

Module for UltraSound 32-Pro (sound card from STB used by Compaq)
and other sound cards based on AMD InterWave (tm) chip with TEA6330T
circuit for extended control of bass, treble and master volume.

joystick_dac
    0 to 31, (0.59V-4.52V or 0.389V-2.98V)
midi
    1 = MIDI UART enable, 0 = MIDI UART disable (default)
pcm_voices
    reserved PCM voices for the synthesizer (default 2)
effect
    1 = InterWave effects enable (default 0); requires 8 voices
isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    port # for InterWave chip (0x210,0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
port_tc
    tone control (i2c bus) port # for TEA6330T chip (0x350,0x360,0x370,0x380)
irq
    IRQ # for InterWave chip (3,5,9,11,12,15)
dma1
    DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7)
dma2
    DMA # for InterWave chip (0,1,3,5,6,7,-1=disable)

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and ISA PnP.

Module snd-jazz16
-------------------

Module for Media Vision Jazz16 chipset. The chipset consists of 3 chips:
MVD1216 + MVA416 + MVA514.

port
    port # for SB DSP chip (0x210,0x220,0x230,0x240,0x250,0x260)
irq
    IRQ # for SB DSP chip (3,5,7,9,10,15)
dma8
    DMA # for SB DSP chip (1,3)
dma16
    DMA # for SB DSP chip (5,7)
mpu_port
    MPU-401 port # (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
mpu_irq
    MPU-401 irq # (2,3,5,7)

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-korg1212
-------------------

Module for Korg 1212 IO PCI card

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-layla20
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Layla20

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-layla24
------------------

Module for Echoaudio Layla24

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-lola
---------------

Module for Digigram Lola PCI-e boards

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-lx6464es
-------------------

Module for Digigram LX6464ES boards

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-maestro3
-------------------

Module for Allegro/Maestro3 chips

external_amp
    enable external amp (enabled by default)
amp_gpio
    GPIO pin number for external amp (0-15) or -1 for default pin (8
    for allegro, 1 for others) 

This module supports autoprobe and multiple chips.

Note: the binding of amplifier is dependent on hardware.
If there is no sound even though all channels are unmuted, try to
specify other gpio connection via amp_gpio option. 
For example, a Panasonic notebook might need ``amp_gpio=0x0d``
option.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-mia
---------------

Module for Echoaudio Mia

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-miro
---------------

Module for Miro soundcards: miroSOUND PCM 1 pro, miroSOUND PCM 12,
miroSOUND PCM 20 Radio.

port
    Port # (0x530,0x604,0xe80,0xf40)
irq
    IRQ # (5,7,9,10,11)
dma1
    1st dma # (0,1,3)
dma2
    2nd dma # (0,1)
mpu_port
    MPU-401 port # (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
mpu_irq
    MPU-401 irq # (5,7,9,10)
fm_port
    FM Port # (0x388)
wss
    enable WSS mode
ide
    enable onboard ide support

Module snd-mixart
-----------------

Module for Digigram miXart8 sound cards.

This module supports multiple cards.
Note: One miXart8 board will be represented as 4 alsa cards.
See MIXART.txt for details.

When the driver is compiled as a module and the hotplug firmware
is supported, the firmware data is loaded via hotplug automatically.
Install the necessary firmware files in alsa-firmware package.
When no hotplug fw loader is available, you need to load the
firmware via mixartloader utility in alsa-tools package.

Module snd-mona
---------------

Module for Echoaudio Mona

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-mpu401
-----------------

Module for MPU-401 UART devices.

port
    port number or -1 (disable)
irq
    IRQ number or -1 (disable)
pnp
    PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

This module supports multiple devices and PnP.

Module snd-msnd-classic
-----------------------

Module for Turtle Beach MultiSound Classic, Tahiti or Monterey
soundcards.

io
    Port # for msnd-classic card
irq
    IRQ # for msnd-classic card
mem
    Memory address (0xb0000, 0xc8000, 0xd0000, 0xd8000, 0xe0000 or 0xe8000)
write_ndelay
    enable write ndelay (default = 1)
calibrate_signal
    calibrate signal (default = 0)
isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)
digital
    Digital daughterboard present (default = 0)
cfg
    Config port (0x250, 0x260 or 0x270) default = PnP
reset
    Reset all devices
mpu_io
    MPU401 I/O port
mpu_irq
    MPU401 irq#
ide_io0
    IDE port #0
ide_io1
    IDE port #1
ide_irq
    IDE irq#
joystick_io
    Joystick I/O port

The driver requires firmware files ``turtlebeach/msndinit.bin`` and
``turtlebeach/msndperm.bin`` in the proper firmware directory.

See Documentation/sound/oss/MultiSound for important information
about this driver.  Note that it has been discontinued, but the 
Voyetra Turtle Beach knowledge base entry for it is still available
at
http://www.turtlebeach.com

Module snd-msnd-pinnacle
------------------------

Module for Turtle Beach MultiSound Pinnacle/Fiji soundcards.

io
    Port # for pinnacle/fiji card
irq
    IRQ # for pinnalce/fiji card
mem
    Memory address (0xb0000, 0xc8000, 0xd0000, 0xd8000, 0xe0000 or 0xe8000)
write_ndelay
    enable write ndelay (default = 1)
calibrate_signal
    calibrate signal (default = 0)
isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

The driver requires firmware files ``turtlebeach/pndspini.bin`` and
``turtlebeach/pndsperm.bin`` in the proper firmware directory.

Module snd-mtpav
----------------

Module for MOTU MidiTimePiece AV multiport MIDI (on the parallel
port).

port
    I/O port # for MTPAV (0x378,0x278, default=0x378)
irq
    IRQ # for MTPAV (7,5, default=7)
hwports
    number of supported hardware ports, default=8.

Module supports only 1 card.  This module has no enable option.

Module snd-mts64
----------------

Module for Ego Systems (ESI) Miditerminal 4140

This module supports multiple devices.
Requires parport (``CONFIG_PARPORT``).

Module snd-nm256
----------------

Module for NeoMagic NM256AV/ZX chips

playback_bufsize
    max playback frame size in kB (4-128kB)
capture_bufsize
    max capture frame size in kB (4-128kB)
force_ac97
    0 or 1 (disabled by default)
buffer_top
    specify buffer top address
use_cache
    0 or 1 (disabled by default)
vaio_hack
    alias buffer_top=0x25a800
reset_workaround
    enable AC97 RESET workaround for some laptops
reset_workaround2
    enable extended AC97 RESET workaround for some other laptops

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Note: on some notebooks the buffer address cannot be detected
automatically, or causes hang-up during initialization.
In such a case, specify the buffer top address explicitly via
the buffer_top option.
For example,
Sony F250: buffer_top=0x25a800
Sony F270: buffer_top=0x272800
The driver supports only ac97 codec.  It's possible to force
to initialize/use ac97 although it's not detected.  In such a
case, use ``force_ac97=1`` option - but *NO* guarantee whether it
works!

Note: The NM256 chip can be linked internally with non-AC97
codecs.  This driver supports only the AC97 codec, and won't work
with machines with other (most likely CS423x or OPL3SAx) chips,
even though the device is detected in lspci.  In such a case, try
other drivers, e.g. snd-cs4232 or snd-opl3sa2.  Some has ISA-PnP
but some doesn't have ISA PnP.  You'll need to specify ``isapnp=0``
and proper hardware parameters in the case without ISA PnP.

Note: some laptops need a workaround for AC97 RESET.  For the
known hardware like Dell Latitude LS and Sony PCG-F305, this
workaround is enabled automatically.  For other laptops with a
hard freeze, you can try ``reset_workaround=1`` option.

Note: Dell Latitude CSx laptops have another problem regarding
AC97 RESET.  On these laptops, reset_workaround2 option is
turned on as default.  This option is worth to try if the
previous reset_workaround option doesn't help.

Note: This driver is really crappy.  It's a porting from the
OSS driver, which is a result of black-magic reverse engineering.
The detection of codec will fail if the driver is loaded *after*
X-server as described above.  You might be able to force to load
the module, but it may result in hang-up.   Hence, make sure that
you load this module *before* X if you encounter this kind of
problem.

Module snd-opl3sa2
------------------

Module for Yamaha OPL3-SA2/SA3 sound cards.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    control port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x370)
sb_port
    SB port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x220,0x240)
wss_port
    WSS port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
midi_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x330), -1 = disable
fm_port
    FM port # for OPL3-SA chip (0x388), -1 = disable
irq
    IRQ # for OPL3-SA chip (5,7,9,10)
dma1
    first DMA # for Yamaha OPL3-SA chip (0,1,3)
dma2
    second DMA # for Yamaha OPL3-SA chip (0,1,3), -1 = disable

This module supports multiple cards and ISA PnP.  It does not support
autoprobe (if ISA PnP is not used) thus all ports must be specified!!!

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-opti92x-ad1848
-------------------------

Module for sound cards based on OPTi 82c92x and Analog Devices AD1848 chips.
Module works with OAK Mozart cards as well.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    port # for WSS chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
fm_port
    port # for OPL3 device (0x388)
irq
    IRQ # for WSS chip (5,7,9,10,11)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (5,7,9,10)
dma1
    first DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)

This module supports only one card, autoprobe and PnP.

Module snd-opti92x-cs4231
-------------------------

Module for sound cards based on OPTi 82c92x and Crystal CS4231 chips.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    port # for WSS chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
fm_port
    port # for OPL3 device (0x388)
irq
    IRQ # for WSS chip (5,7,9,10,11)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (5,7,9,10)
dma1
    first DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)
dma2
    second DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)

This module supports only one card, autoprobe and PnP.

Module snd-opti93x
------------------

Module for sound cards based on OPTi 82c93x chips.

isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with ``isapnp=0``, the following options are available:

port
    port # for WSS chip (0x530,0xe80,0xf40,0x604)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330)
fm_port
    port # for OPL3 device (0x388)
irq
    IRQ # for WSS chip (5,7,9,10,11)
mpu_irq
    IRQ # for MPU-401 UART (5,7,9,10)
dma1
    first DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)
dma2
    second DMA # for WSS chip (0,1,3)

This module supports only one card, autoprobe and PnP.

Module snd-oxygen
-----------------

Module for sound cards based on the C-Media CMI8786/8787/8788 chip:

* Asound A-8788
* Asus Xonar DG/DGX
* AuzenTech X-Meridian
* AuzenTech X-Meridian 2G
* Bgears b-Enspirer
* Club3D Theatron DTS
* HT-Omega Claro (plus)
* HT-Omega Claro halo (XT)
* Kuroutoshikou CMI8787-HG2PCI
* Razer Barracuda AC-1
* Sondigo Inferno
* TempoTec HiFier Fantasia
* TempoTec HiFier Serenade
    
This module supports autoprobe and multiple cards.
  
Module snd-pcsp
---------------

Module for internal PC-Speaker.

nopcm
    Disable PC-Speaker PCM sound. Only beeps remain.
nforce_wa
    enable NForce chipset workaround. Expect bad sound.

This module supports system beeps, some kind of PCM playback and
even a few mixer controls.

Module snd-pcxhr
----------------

Module for Digigram PCXHR boards

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-portman2x4
---------------------

Module for Midiman Portman 2x4 parallel port MIDI interface

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-powermac (on ppc only)
---------------------------------

Module for PowerMac, iMac and iBook on-board soundchips

enable_beep
    enable beep using PCM (enabled as default)

Module supports autoprobe a chip.

Note: the driver may have problems regarding endianness.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-pxa2xx-ac97 (on arm only)
------------------------------------

Module for AC97 driver for the Intel PXA2xx chip

For ARM architecture only.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-riptide
------------------

Module for Conexant Riptide chip

joystick_port
    Joystick port # (default: 0x200)
mpu_port
    MPU401 port # (default: 0x330)
opl3_port
    OPL3 port # (default: 0x388)

This module supports multiple cards.
The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.
You need to install the firmware file ``riptide.hex`` to the standard
firmware path (e.g. /lib/firmware).

Module snd-rme32
----------------

Module for RME Digi32, Digi32 Pro and Digi32/8 (Sek'd Prodif32, 
Prodif96 and Prodif Gold) sound cards.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-rme96
----------------

Module for RME Digi96, Digi96/8 and Digi96/8 PRO/PAD/PST sound cards.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-rme9652
------------------

Module for RME Digi9652 (Hammerfall, Hammerfall-Light) sound cards.

precise_ptr
    Enable precise pointer (doesn't work reliably). (default = 0)

This module supports multiple cards.

Note: snd-page-alloc module does the job which snd-hammerfall-mem
module did formerly.  It will allocate the buffers in advance
when any RME9652 cards are found.  To make the buffer
allocation sure, load snd-page-alloc module in the early
stage of boot sequence.  See `Early Buffer Allocation`_
section.

Module snd-sa11xx-uda1341 (on arm only)
---------------------------------------

Module for Philips UDA1341TS on Compaq iPAQ H3600 sound card.

Module supports only one card.
Module has no enable and index options.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-sb8
--------------

Module for 8-bit SoundBlaster cards: SoundBlaster 1.0, SoundBlaster 2.0,
SoundBlaster Pro

port
    port # for SB DSP chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
irq
    IRQ # for SB DSP chip (5,7,9,10)
dma8
    DMA # for SB DSP chip (1,3)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-sb16 and snd-sbawe
-----------------------------

Module for 16-bit SoundBlaster cards: SoundBlaster 16 (PnP),
SoundBlaster AWE 32 (PnP), SoundBlaster AWE 64 PnP

mic_agc
    Mic Auto-Gain-Control - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)
csp
    ASP/CSP chip support - 0 = disable (default), 1 = enable
isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with isapnp=0, the following options are available:

port
    port # for SB DSP 4.x chip (0x220,0x240,0x260)
mpu_port
    port # for MPU-401 UART (0x300,0x330), -1 = disable
awe_port
    base port # for EMU8000 synthesizer (0x620,0x640,0x660) (snd-sbawe
    module only)
irq
    IRQ # for SB DSP 4.x chip (5,7,9,10)
dma8
    8-bit DMA # for SB DSP 4.x chip (0,1,3)
dma16
    16-bit DMA # for SB DSP 4.x chip (5,6,7)

This module supports multiple cards, autoprobe and ISA PnP.

Note: To use Vibra16X cards in 16-bit half duplex mode, you must
disable 16bit DMA with dma16 = -1 module parameter.
Also, all Sound Blaster 16 type cards can operate in 16-bit
half duplex mode through 8-bit DMA channel by disabling their
16-bit DMA channel.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-sc6000
-----------------

Module for Gallant SC-6000 soundcard and later models: SC-6600 and
SC-7000.

port
    Port # (0x220 or 0x240)
mss_port
    MSS Port # (0x530 or 0xe80)
irq
    IRQ # (5,7,9,10,11)
mpu_irq
    MPU-401 IRQ # (5,7,9,10) ,0 - no MPU-401 irq
dma
    DMA # (1,3,0)
joystick
    Enable gameport - 0 = disable (default), 1 = enable

This module supports multiple cards.

This card is also known as Audio Excel DSP 16 or Zoltrix AV302.

Module snd-sscape
-----------------

Module for ENSONIQ SoundScape cards.

port
    Port # (PnP setup)
wss_port
    WSS Port # (PnP setup)
irq
    IRQ # (PnP setup)
mpu_irq
    MPU-401 IRQ # (PnP setup)
dma
    DMA # (PnP setup)
dma2
    2nd DMA # (PnP setup, -1 to disable)
joystick
    Enable gameport - 0 = disable (default), 1 = enable

This module supports multiple cards.

The driver requires the firmware loader support on kernel.

Module snd-sun-amd7930 (on sparc only)
--------------------------------------

Module for AMD7930 sound chips found on Sparcs.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-sun-cs4231 (on sparc only)
-------------------------------------

Module for CS4231 sound chips found on Sparcs.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-sun-dbri (on sparc only)
-----------------------------------

Module for DBRI sound chips found on Sparcs.

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-wavefront
--------------------

Module for Turtle Beach Maui, Tropez and Tropez+ sound cards.

use_cs4232_midi
    Use CS4232 MPU-401 interface
    (inaccessibly located inside your computer)
isapnp
    ISA PnP detection - 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default)

with isapnp=0, the following options are available:

cs4232_pcm_port
    Port # for CS4232 PCM interface.
cs4232_pcm_irq
    IRQ # for CS4232 PCM interface (5,7,9,11,12,15).
cs4232_mpu_port
    Port # for CS4232 MPU-401 interface.
cs4232_mpu_irq
    IRQ # for CS4232 MPU-401 interface (9,11,12,15).
ics2115_port
    Port # for ICS2115
ics2115_irq
    IRQ # for ICS2115
fm_port
    FM OPL-3 Port #
dma1
    DMA1 # for CS4232 PCM interface.
dma2
    DMA2 # for CS4232 PCM interface.

The below are options for wavefront_synth features:

wf_raw
    Assume that we need to boot the OS (default:no);
    If yes, then during driver loading, the state of the board is
    ignored, and we reset the board and load the firmware anyway.
fx_raw
    Assume that the FX process needs help (default:yes);
    If false, we'll leave the FX processor in whatever state it is
    when the driver is loaded.  The default is to download the
    microprogram and associated coefficients to set it up for
    "default" operation, whatever that means.
debug_default
    Debug parameters for card initialization
wait_usecs
    How long to wait without sleeping, usecs (default:150);
    This magic number seems to give pretty optimal throughput
    based on my limited experimentation. 
    If you want to play around with it and find a better value, be
    my guest. Remember, the idea is to get a number that causes us
    to just busy wait for as many WaveFront commands as possible,
    without coming up with a number so large that we hog the whole
    CPU. 
    Specifically, with this number, out of about 134,000 status
    waits, only about 250 result in a sleep. 
sleep_interval
    How long to sleep when waiting for reply (default: 100)
sleep_tries
    How many times to try sleeping during a wait (default: 50)
ospath
    Pathname to processed ICS2115 OS firmware (default:wavefront.os);
    The path name of the ISC2115 OS firmware.  In the recent
    version, it's handled via firmware loader framework, so it
    must be installed in the proper path, typically,
    /lib/firmware.
reset_time
    How long to wait for a reset to take effect (default:2)
ramcheck_time
    How many seconds to wait for the RAM test (default:20)
osrun_time
    How many seconds to wait for the ICS2115 OS (default:10)

This module supports multiple cards and ISA PnP.

Note: the firmware file ``wavefront.os`` was located in the earlier
version in /etc.  Now it's loaded via firmware loader, and
must be in the proper firmware path, such as /lib/firmware.
Copy (or symlink) the file appropriately if you get an error
regarding firmware downloading after upgrading the kernel.

Module snd-sonicvibes
---------------------

Module for S3 SonicVibes PCI sound cards.
* PINE Schubert 32 PCI
  
reverb
    Reverb Enable - 1 = enable, 0 = disable (default);
    SoundCard must have onboard SRAM for this.
mge
    Mic Gain Enable - 1 = enable, 0 = disable (default)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

Module snd-serial-u16550
------------------------

Module for UART16550A serial MIDI ports.

port
    port # for UART16550A chip
irq
    IRQ # for UART16550A chip, -1 = poll mode
speed
    speed in bauds (9600,19200,38400,57600,115200)
    38400 = default
base
    base for divisor in bauds (57600,115200,230400,460800)
    115200 = default
outs
    number of MIDI ports in a serial port (1-4)
    1 = default
adaptor
    Type of adaptor.
	0 = Soundcanvas, 1 = MS-124T, 2 = MS-124W S/A,
	3 = MS-124W M/B, 4 = Generic

This module supports multiple cards. This module does not support autoprobe
thus the main port must be specified!!! Other options are optional.

Module snd-trident
------------------

Module for Trident 4DWave DX/NX sound cards.
* Best Union  Miss Melody 4DWave PCI
* HIS  4DWave PCI
* Warpspeed  ONSpeed 4DWave PCI
* AzTech  PCI 64-Q3D
* Addonics  SV 750
* CHIC  True Sound 4Dwave
* Shark  Predator4D-PCI
* Jaton  SonicWave 4D
* SiS SI7018 PCI Audio
* Hoontech SoundTrack Digital 4DWave NX
		    
pcm_channels
    max channels (voices) reserved for PCM
wavetable_size
    max wavetable size in kB (4-?kb)

This module supports multiple cards and autoprobe.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ua101
----------------

Module for the Edirol UA-101/UA-1000 audio/MIDI interfaces.

This module supports multiple devices, autoprobe and hotplugging.

Module snd-usb-audio
--------------------

Module for USB audio and USB MIDI devices.

vid
    Vendor ID for the device (optional)
pid
    Product ID for the device (optional)
nrpacks
    Max. number of packets per URB (default: 8)
device_setup
    Device specific magic number (optional);
    Influence depends on the device
    Default: 0x0000 
ignore_ctl_error
    Ignore any USB-controller regarding mixer interface (default: no)
autoclock
    Enable auto-clock selection for UAC2 devices (default: yes)
quirk_alias
    Quirk alias list, pass strings like ``0123abcd:5678beef``, which
    applies the existing quirk for the device 5678:beef to a new
    device 0123:abcd.

This module supports multiple devices, autoprobe and hotplugging.

NB: ``nrpacks`` parameter can be modified dynamically via sysfs.
Don't put the value over 20.  Changing via sysfs has no sanity
check.

NB: ``ignore_ctl_error=1`` may help when you get an error at accessing
the mixer element such as URB error -22.  This happens on some
buggy USB device or the controller.

NB: quirk_alias option is provided only for testing / development.
If you want to have a proper support, contact to upstream for
adding the matching quirk in the driver code statically.

Module snd-usb-caiaq
--------------------

Module for caiaq UB audio interfaces,

* Native Instruments RigKontrol2
* Native Instruments Kore Controller
* Native Instruments Audio Kontrol 1
* Native Instruments Audio 8 DJ
	
This module supports multiple devices, autoprobe and hotplugging.
  
Module snd-usb-usx2y
--------------------

Module for Tascam USB US-122, US-224 and US-428 devices.

This module supports multiple devices, autoprobe and hotplugging.

Note: you need to load the firmware via ``usx2yloader`` utility included
in alsa-tools and alsa-firmware packages.

Module snd-via82xx
------------------

Module for AC'97 motherboards based on VIA 82C686A/686B, 8233, 8233A,
8233C, 8235, 8237 (south) bridge.

mpu_port
    0x300,0x310,0x320,0x330, otherwise obtain BIOS setup
    [VIA686A/686B only]
joystick
    Enable joystick (default off) [VIA686A/686B only]
ac97_clock
    AC'97 codec clock base (default 48000Hz)
dxs_support
    support DXS channels, 0 = auto (default), 1 = enable, 2 = disable,
    3 = 48k only, 4 = no VRA, 5 = enable any sample rate and different
    sample rates on different channels [VIA8233/C, 8235, 8237 only]
ac97_quirk
    AC'97 workaround for strange hardware;
    See `AC97 Quirk Option`_ section below.

This module supports one chip and autoprobe.

Note: on some SMP motherboards like MSI 694D the interrupts might
not be generated properly.  In such a case, please try to
set the SMP (or MPS) version on BIOS to 1.1 instead of
default value 1.4.  Then the interrupt number will be
assigned under 15. You might also upgrade your BIOS.

Note: VIA8233/5/7 (not VIA8233A) can support DXS (direct sound)
channels as the first PCM.  On these channels, up to 4
streams can be played at the same time, and the controller
can perform sample rate conversion with separate rates for
each channel.
As default (``dxs_support = 0``), 48k fixed rate is chosen
except for the known devices since the output is often
noisy except for 48k on some mother boards due to the
bug of BIOS.
Please try once ``dxs_support=5`` and if it works on other
sample rates (e.g. 44.1kHz of mp3 playback), please let us
know the PCI subsystem vendor/device id's (output of
``lspci -nv``).
If ``dxs_support=5`` does not work, try ``dxs_support=4``; if it
doesn't work too, try dxs_support=1.  (dxs_support=1 is
usually for old motherboards.  The correct implemented
board should work with 4 or 5.)  If it still doesn't
work and the default setting is ok, ``dxs_support=3`` is the
right choice.  If the default setting doesn't work at all,
try ``dxs_support=2`` to disable the DXS channels.
In any cases, please let us know the result and the
subsystem vendor/device ids.  See `Links and Addresses`_
below.

Note: for the MPU401 on VIA823x, use snd-mpu401 driver
additionally.  The mpu_port option is for VIA686 chips only.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-via82xx-modem
------------------------

Module for VIA82xx AC97 modem

ac97_clock
    AC'97 codec clock base (default 48000Hz)

This module supports one card and autoprobe.

Note: The default index value of this module is -2, i.e. the first
slot is excluded.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-virmidi
------------------

Module for virtual rawmidi devices.
This module creates virtual rawmidi devices which communicate
to the corresponding ALSA sequencer ports.

midi_devs
    MIDI devices # (1-4, default=4)

This module supports multiple cards.

Module snd-virtuoso
-------------------

Module for sound cards based on the Asus AV66/AV100/AV200 chips,
i.e., Xonar D1, DX, D2, D2X, DS, DSX, Essence ST (Deluxe),
Essence STX (II), HDAV1.3 (Deluxe), and HDAV1.3 Slim.

This module supports autoprobe and multiple cards.

Module snd-vx222
----------------

Module for Digigram VX-Pocket VX222, V222 v2 and Mic cards.

mic
    Enable Microphone on V222 Mic (NYI)
ibl
    Capture IBL size. (default = 0, minimum size)

This module supports multiple cards.

When the driver is compiled as a module and the hotplug firmware
is supported, the firmware data is loaded via hotplug automatically.
Install the necessary firmware files in alsa-firmware package.
When no hotplug fw loader is available, you need to load the
firmware via vxloader utility in alsa-tools package.  To invoke
vxloader automatically, add the following to /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf

::

  install snd-vx222 /sbin/modprobe --first-time -i snd-vx222\
    && /usr/bin/vxloader

(for 2.2/2.4 kernels, add ``post-install /usr/bin/vxloader`` to
/etc/modules.conf, instead.)
IBL size defines the interrupts period for PCM.  The smaller size
gives smaller latency but leads to more CPU consumption, too.
The size is usually aligned to 126.  As default (=0), the smallest
size is chosen.  The possible IBL values can be found in
/proc/asound/cardX/vx-status proc file.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-vxpocket
-------------------

Module for Digigram VX-Pocket VX2 and 440 PCMCIA cards.

ibl
    Capture IBL size. (default = 0, minimum size)

This module supports multiple cards.  The module is compiled only when
PCMCIA is supported on kernel.

With the older 2.6.x kernel, to activate the driver via the card
manager, you'll need to set up /etc/pcmcia/vxpocket.conf.  See the
sound/pcmcia/vx/vxpocket.c.  2.6.13 or later kernel requires no
longer require a config file.

When the driver is compiled as a module and the hotplug firmware
is supported, the firmware data is loaded via hotplug automatically.
Install the necessary firmware files in alsa-firmware package.
When no hotplug fw loader is available, you need to load the
firmware via vxloader utility in alsa-tools package.

About capture IBL, see the description of snd-vx222 module.

Note: snd-vxp440 driver is merged to snd-vxpocket driver since
ALSA 1.0.10.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-ymfpci
-----------------

Module for Yamaha PCI chips (YMF72x, YMF74x & YMF75x).

mpu_port
    0x300,0x330,0x332,0x334, 0 (disable) by default,
    1 (auto-detect for YMF744/754 only)
fm_port
    0x388,0x398,0x3a0,0x3a8, 0 (disable) by default
    1 (auto-detect for YMF744/754 only)
joystick_port
    0x201,0x202,0x204,0x205, 0 (disable) by default,
    1 (auto-detect)
rear_switch
    enable shared rear/line-in switch (bool)

This module supports autoprobe and multiple chips.

The power-management is supported.

Module snd-pdaudiocf
--------------------

Module for Sound Core PDAudioCF sound card.

The power-management is supported.


AC97 Quirk Option
=================

The ac97_quirk option is used to enable/override the workaround for
specific devices on drivers for on-board AC'97 controllers like
snd-intel8x0.  Some hardware have swapped output pins between Master
and Headphone, or Surround (thanks to confusion of AC'97
specifications from version to version :-)

The driver provides the auto-detection of known problematic devices,
but some might be unknown or wrongly detected.  In such a case, pass
the proper value with this option.

The following strings are accepted:

default
    Don't override the default setting
none
    Disable the quirk
hp_only
    Bind Master and Headphone controls as a single control
swap_hp
    Swap headphone and master controls
swap_surround
    Swap master and surround controls
ad_sharing
    For AD1985, turn on OMS bit and use headphone
alc_jack
    For ALC65x, turn on the jack sense mode
inv_eapd
    Inverted EAPD implementation
mute_led
    Bind EAPD bit for turning on/off mute LED

For backward compatibility, the corresponding integer value -1, 0, ...
are  accepted, too.

For example, if ``Master`` volume control has no effect on your device
but only ``Headphone`` does, pass ac97_quirk=hp_only module option.


Configuring Non-ISAPNP Cards
============================

When the kernel is configured with ISA-PnP support, the modules
supporting the isapnp cards will have module options ``isapnp``.
If this option is set, *only* the ISA-PnP devices will be probed.
For probing the non ISA-PnP cards, you have to pass ``isapnp=0`` option
together with the proper i/o and irq configuration.

When the kernel is configured without ISA-PnP support, isapnp option
will be not built in.


Module Autoloading Support
==========================

The ALSA drivers can be loaded automatically on demand by defining
module aliases.  The string ``snd-card-%1`` is requested for ALSA native
devices where ``%i`` is sound card number from zero to seven.

To auto-load an ALSA driver for OSS services, define the string
``sound-slot-%i`` where ``%i`` means the slot number for OSS, which
corresponds to the card index of ALSA.  Usually, define this
as the same card module.

An example configuration for a single emu10k1 card is like below:
::

    ----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf
    alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
    alias sound-slot-0 snd-emu10k1
    ----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf

The available number of auto-loaded sound cards depends on the module
option ``cards_limit`` of snd module.  As default it's set to 1.
To enable the auto-loading of multiple cards, specify the number of
sound cards in that option.

When multiple cards are available, it'd better to specify the index
number for each card via module option, too, so that the order of
cards is kept consistent.

An example configuration for two sound cards is like below:
::

    ----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf
    # ALSA portion
    options snd cards_limit=2
    alias snd-card-0 snd-interwave
    alias snd-card-1 snd-ens1371
    options snd-interwave index=0
    options snd-ens1371 index=1
    # OSS/Free portion
    alias sound-slot-0 snd-interwave
    alias sound-slot-1 snd-ens1371
    ----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf

In this example, the interwave card is always loaded as the first card
(index 0) and ens1371 as the second (index 1).

Alternative (and new) way to fixate the slot assignment is to use
``slots`` option of snd module.  In the case above, specify like the
following: 
::

    options snd slots=snd-interwave,snd-ens1371

Then, the first slot (#0) is reserved for snd-interwave driver, and
the second (#1) for snd-ens1371.  You can omit index option in each
driver if slots option is used (although you can still have them at
the same time as long as they don't conflict).

The slots option is especially useful for avoiding the possible
hot-plugging and the resultant slot conflict.  For example, in the
case above again, the first two slots are already reserved.  If any
other driver (e.g. snd-usb-audio) is loaded before snd-interwave or
snd-ens1371, it will be assigned to the third or later slot.

When a module name is given with '!', the slot will be given for any
modules but that name.  For example, ``slots=!snd-pcsp`` will reserve
the first slot for any modules but snd-pcsp. 


ALSA PCM devices to OSS devices mapping
=======================================
::

    /dev/snd/pcmC0D0[c|p]  -> /dev/audio0 (/dev/audio) -> minor 4
    /dev/snd/pcmC0D0[c|p]  -> /dev/dsp0 (/dev/dsp)     -> minor 3
    /dev/snd/pcmC0D1[c|p]  -> /dev/adsp0 (/dev/adsp)   -> minor 12
    /dev/snd/pcmC1D0[c|p]  -> /dev/audio1              -> minor 4+16 = 20
    /dev/snd/pcmC1D0[c|p]  -> /dev/dsp1                -> minor 3+16 = 19
    /dev/snd/pcmC1D1[c|p]  -> /dev/adsp1               -> minor 12+16 = 28
    /dev/snd/pcmC2D0[c|p]  -> /dev/audio2              -> minor 4+32 = 36
    /dev/snd/pcmC2D0[c|p]  -> /dev/dsp2                -> minor 3+32 = 39
    /dev/snd/pcmC2D1[c|p]  -> /dev/adsp2               -> minor 12+32 = 44

The first number from ``/dev/snd/pcmC{X}D{Y}[c|p]`` expression means
sound card number and second means device number.  The ALSA devices
have either ``c`` or ``p`` suffix indicating the direction, capture and
playback, respectively.

Please note that the device mapping above may be varied via the module
options of snd-pcm-oss module.


Proc interfaces (/proc/asound)
==============================

/proc/asound/card#/pcm#[cp]/oss
-------------------------------
erase
    erase all additional information about OSS applications

<app_name> <fragments> <fragment_size> [<options>]
    <app_name>
	name of application with (higher priority) or without path
    <fragments>
	 number of fragments or zero if auto
    <fragment_size>
	 size of fragment in bytes or zero if auto
    <options>
	optional parameters

	disable
	    the application tries to open a pcm device for
	    this channel but does not want to use it.
	    (Cause a bug or mmap needs)
	    It's good for Quake etc...
	direct
	    don't use plugins
	block
	     force block mode (rvplayer)
	non-block
	    force non-block mode
	whole-frag
	    write only whole fragments (optimization affecting
	    playback only)
	no-silence
	    do not fill silence ahead to avoid clicks
	buggy-ptr
	    Returns the whitespace blocks in GETOPTR ioctl
	    instead of filled blocks

Example:
::

    echo "x11amp 128 16384" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss
    echo "squake 0 0 disable" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0c/oss
    echo "rvplayer 0 0 block" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss


Early Buffer Allocation
=======================

Some drivers (e.g. hdsp) require the large contiguous buffers, and
sometimes it's too late to find such spaces when the driver module is
actually loaded due to memory fragmentation.  You can pre-allocate the
PCM buffers by loading snd-page-alloc module and write commands to its
proc file in prior, for example, in the early boot stage like
``/etc/init.d/*.local`` scripts.

Reading the proc file /proc/drivers/snd-page-alloc shows the current
usage of page allocation.  In writing, you can send the following
commands to the snd-page-alloc driver:

* add VENDOR DEVICE MASK SIZE BUFFERS

VENDOR and DEVICE are PCI vendor and device IDs.  They take
integer numbers (0x prefix is needed for the hex).
MASK is the PCI DMA mask.  Pass 0 if not restricted.
SIZE is the size of each buffer to allocate.  You can pass
k and m suffix for KB and MB.  The max number is 16MB.
BUFFERS is the number of buffers to allocate.  It must be greater
than 0.  The max number is 4.

* erase

This will erase the all pre-allocated buffers which are not in
use.


Links and Addresses
===================

ALSA project homepage
    http://www.alsa-project.org
Kernel Bugzilla
    http://bugzilla.kernel.org/
ALSA Developers ML
    mailto:alsa-devel@alsa-project.org
alsa-info.sh script
    http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-info.sh