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2161
/*
 *  linux/fs/ext3/balloc.c
 *
 * Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
 * Remy Card (card@masi.ibp.fr)
 * Laboratoire MASI - Institut Blaise Pascal
 * Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI)
 *
 *  Enhanced block allocation by Stephen Tweedie (sct@redhat.com), 1993
 *  Big-endian to little-endian byte-swapping/bitmaps by
 *        David S. Miller (davem@caip.rutgers.edu), 1995
 */

#include <linux/quotaops.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include "ext3.h"

/*
 * balloc.c contains the blocks allocation and deallocation routines
 */

/*
 * The free blocks are managed by bitmaps.  A file system contains several
 * blocks groups.  Each group contains 1 bitmap block for blocks, 1 bitmap
 * block for inodes, N blocks for the inode table and data blocks.
 *
 * The file system contains group descriptors which are located after the
 * super block.  Each descriptor contains the number of the bitmap block and
 * the free blocks count in the block.  The descriptors are loaded in memory
 * when a file system is mounted (see ext3_fill_super).
 */


#define in_range(b, first, len)	((b) >= (first) && (b) <= (first) + (len) - 1)

/*
 * Calculate the block group number and offset, given a block number
 */
static void ext3_get_group_no_and_offset(struct super_block *sb,
	ext3_fsblk_t blocknr, unsigned long *blockgrpp, ext3_grpblk_t *offsetp)
{
	struct ext3_super_block *es = EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es;

	blocknr = blocknr - le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block);
	if (offsetp)
		*offsetp = blocknr % EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
	if (blockgrpp)
		*blockgrpp = blocknr / EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
}

/**
 * ext3_get_group_desc() -- load group descriptor from disk
 * @sb:			super block
 * @block_group:	given block group
 * @bh:			pointer to the buffer head to store the block
 *			group descriptor
 */
struct ext3_group_desc * ext3_get_group_desc(struct super_block * sb,
					     unsigned int block_group,
					     struct buffer_head ** bh)
{
	unsigned long group_desc;
	unsigned long offset;
	struct ext3_group_desc * desc;
	struct ext3_sb_info *sbi = EXT3_SB(sb);

	if (block_group >= sbi->s_groups_count) {
		ext3_error (sb, "ext3_get_group_desc",
			    "block_group >= groups_count - "
			    "block_group = %d, groups_count = %lu",
			    block_group, sbi->s_groups_count);

		return NULL;
	}
	smp_rmb();

	group_desc = block_group >> EXT3_DESC_PER_BLOCK_BITS(sb);
	offset = block_group & (EXT3_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb) - 1);
	if (!sbi->s_group_desc[group_desc]) {
		ext3_error (sb, "ext3_get_group_desc",
			    "Group descriptor not loaded - "
			    "block_group = %d, group_desc = %lu, desc = %lu",
			     block_group, group_desc, offset);
		return NULL;
	}

	desc = (struct ext3_group_desc *) sbi->s_group_desc[group_desc]->b_data;
	if (bh)
		*bh = sbi->s_group_desc[group_desc];
	return desc + offset;
}

static int ext3_valid_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
					struct ext3_group_desc *desc,
					unsigned int block_group,
					struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	ext3_grpblk_t offset;
	ext3_grpblk_t next_zero_bit;
	ext3_fsblk_t bitmap_blk;
	ext3_fsblk_t group_first_block;

	group_first_block = ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, block_group);

	/* check whether block bitmap block number is set */
	bitmap_blk = le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_block_bitmap);
	offset = bitmap_blk - group_first_block;
	if (!ext3_test_bit(offset, bh->b_data))
		/* bad block bitmap */
		goto err_out;

	/* check whether the inode bitmap block number is set */
	bitmap_blk = le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_inode_bitmap);
	offset = bitmap_blk - group_first_block;
	if (!ext3_test_bit(offset, bh->b_data))
		/* bad block bitmap */
		goto err_out;

	/* check whether the inode table block number is set */
	bitmap_blk = le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_inode_table);
	offset = bitmap_blk - group_first_block;
	next_zero_bit = ext3_find_next_zero_bit(bh->b_data,
				offset + EXT3_SB(sb)->s_itb_per_group,
				offset);
	if (next_zero_bit >= offset + EXT3_SB(sb)->s_itb_per_group)
		/* good bitmap for inode tables */
		return 1;

err_out:
	ext3_error(sb, __func__,
			"Invalid block bitmap - "
			"block_group = %d, block = %lu",
			block_group, bitmap_blk);
	return 0;
}

/**
 * read_block_bitmap()
 * @sb:			super block
 * @block_group:	given block group
 *
 * Read the bitmap for a given block_group,and validate the
 * bits for block/inode/inode tables are set in the bitmaps
 *
 * Return buffer_head on success or NULL in case of failure.
 */
static struct buffer_head *
read_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, unsigned int block_group)
{
	struct ext3_group_desc * desc;
	struct buffer_head * bh = NULL;
	ext3_fsblk_t bitmap_blk;

	desc = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, block_group, NULL);
	if (!desc)
		return NULL;
	trace_ext3_read_block_bitmap(sb, block_group);
	bitmap_blk = le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_block_bitmap);
	bh = sb_getblk(sb, bitmap_blk);
	if (unlikely(!bh)) {
		ext3_error(sb, __func__,
			    "Cannot read block bitmap - "
			    "block_group = %d, block_bitmap = %u",
			    block_group, le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_block_bitmap));
		return NULL;
	}
	if (likely(bh_uptodate_or_lock(bh)))
		return bh;

	if (bh_submit_read(bh) < 0) {
		brelse(bh);
		ext3_error(sb, __func__,
			    "Cannot read block bitmap - "
			    "block_group = %d, block_bitmap = %u",
			    block_group, le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_block_bitmap));
		return NULL;
	}
	ext3_valid_block_bitmap(sb, desc, block_group, bh);
	/*
	 * file system mounted not to panic on error, continue with corrupt
	 * bitmap
	 */
	return bh;
}
/*
 * The reservation window structure operations
 * --------------------------------------------
 * Operations include:
 * dump, find, add, remove, is_empty, find_next_reservable_window, etc.
 *
 * We use a red-black tree to represent per-filesystem reservation
 * windows.
 *
 */

/**
 * __rsv_window_dump() -- Dump the filesystem block allocation reservation map
 * @rb_root:		root of per-filesystem reservation rb tree
 * @verbose:		verbose mode
 * @fn:			function which wishes to dump the reservation map
 *
 * If verbose is turned on, it will print the whole block reservation
 * windows(start, end).	Otherwise, it will only print out the "bad" windows,
 * those windows that overlap with their immediate neighbors.
 */
#if 1
static void __rsv_window_dump(struct rb_root *root, int verbose,
			      const char *fn)
{
	struct rb_node *n;
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *rsv, *prev;
	int bad;

restart:
	n = rb_first(root);
	bad = 0;
	prev = NULL;

	printk("Block Allocation Reservation Windows Map (%s):\n", fn);
	while (n) {
		rsv = rb_entry(n, struct ext3_reserve_window_node, rsv_node);
		if (verbose)
			printk("reservation window 0x%p "
			       "start:  %lu, end:  %lu\n",
			       rsv, rsv->rsv_start, rsv->rsv_end);
		if (rsv->rsv_start && rsv->rsv_start >= rsv->rsv_end) {
			printk("Bad reservation %p (start >= end)\n",
			       rsv);
			bad = 1;
		}
		if (prev && prev->rsv_end >= rsv->rsv_start) {
			printk("Bad reservation %p (prev->end >= start)\n",
			       rsv);
			bad = 1;
		}
		if (bad) {
			if (!verbose) {
				printk("Restarting reservation walk in verbose mode\n");
				verbose = 1;
				goto restart;
			}
		}
		n = rb_next(n);
		prev = rsv;
	}
	printk("Window map complete.\n");
	BUG_ON(bad);
}
#define rsv_window_dump(root, verbose) \
	__rsv_window_dump((root), (verbose), __func__)
#else
#define rsv_window_dump(root, verbose) do {} while (0)
#endif

/**
 * goal_in_my_reservation()
 * @rsv:		inode's reservation window
 * @grp_goal:		given goal block relative to the allocation block group
 * @group:		the current allocation block group
 * @sb:			filesystem super block
 *
 * Test if the given goal block (group relative) is within the file's
 * own block reservation window range.
 *
 * If the reservation window is outside the goal allocation group, return 0;
 * grp_goal (given goal block) could be -1, which means no specific
 * goal block. In this case, always return 1.
 * If the goal block is within the reservation window, return 1;
 * otherwise, return 0;
 */
static int
goal_in_my_reservation(struct ext3_reserve_window *rsv, ext3_grpblk_t grp_goal,
			unsigned int group, struct super_block * sb)
{
	ext3_fsblk_t group_first_block, group_last_block;

	group_first_block = ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group);
	group_last_block = group_first_block + (EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) - 1);

	if ((rsv->_rsv_start > group_last_block) ||
	    (rsv->_rsv_end < group_first_block))
		return 0;
	if ((grp_goal >= 0) && ((grp_goal + group_first_block < rsv->_rsv_start)
		|| (grp_goal + group_first_block > rsv->_rsv_end)))
		return 0;
	return 1;
}

/**
 * search_reserve_window()
 * @rb_root:		root of reservation tree
 * @goal:		target allocation block
 *
 * Find the reserved window which includes the goal, or the previous one
 * if the goal is not in any window.
 * Returns NULL if there are no windows or if all windows start after the goal.
 */
static struct ext3_reserve_window_node *
search_reserve_window(struct rb_root *root, ext3_fsblk_t goal)
{
	struct rb_node *n = root->rb_node;
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *rsv;

	if (!n)
		return NULL;

	do {
		rsv = rb_entry(n, struct ext3_reserve_window_node, rsv_node);

		if (goal < rsv->rsv_start)
			n = n->rb_left;
		else if (goal > rsv->rsv_end)
			n = n->rb_right;
		else
			return rsv;
	} while (n);
	/*
	 * We've fallen off the end of the tree: the goal wasn't inside
	 * any particular node.  OK, the previous node must be to one
	 * side of the interval containing the goal.  If it's the RHS,
	 * we need to back up one.
	 */
	if (rsv->rsv_start > goal) {
		n = rb_prev(&rsv->rsv_node);
		rsv = rb_entry(n, struct ext3_reserve_window_node, rsv_node);
	}
	return rsv;
}

/**
 * ext3_rsv_window_add() -- Insert a window to the block reservation rb tree.
 * @sb:			super block
 * @rsv:		reservation window to add
 *
 * Must be called with rsv_lock hold.
 */
void ext3_rsv_window_add(struct super_block *sb,
		    struct ext3_reserve_window_node *rsv)
{
	struct rb_root *root = &EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_root;
	struct rb_node *node = &rsv->rsv_node;
	ext3_fsblk_t start = rsv->rsv_start;

	struct rb_node ** p = &root->rb_node;
	struct rb_node * parent = NULL;
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *this;

	trace_ext3_rsv_window_add(sb, rsv);
	while (*p)
	{
		parent = *p;
		this = rb_entry(parent, struct ext3_reserve_window_node, rsv_node);

		if (start < this->rsv_start)
			p = &(*p)->rb_left;
		else if (start > this->rsv_end)
			p = &(*p)->rb_right;
		else {
			rsv_window_dump(root, 1);
			BUG();
		}
	}

	rb_link_node(node, parent, p);
	rb_insert_color(node, root);
}

/**
 * ext3_rsv_window_remove() -- unlink a window from the reservation rb tree
 * @sb:			super block
 * @rsv:		reservation window to remove
 *
 * Mark the block reservation window as not allocated, and unlink it
 * from the filesystem reservation window rb tree. Must be called with
 * rsv_lock hold.
 */
static void rsv_window_remove(struct super_block *sb,
			      struct ext3_reserve_window_node *rsv)
{
	rsv->rsv_start = EXT3_RESERVE_WINDOW_NOT_ALLOCATED;
	rsv->rsv_end = EXT3_RESERVE_WINDOW_NOT_ALLOCATED;
	rsv->rsv_alloc_hit = 0;
	rb_erase(&rsv->rsv_node, &EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_root);
}

/*
 * rsv_is_empty() -- Check if the reservation window is allocated.
 * @rsv:		given reservation window to check
 *
 * returns 1 if the end block is EXT3_RESERVE_WINDOW_NOT_ALLOCATED.
 */
static inline int rsv_is_empty(struct ext3_reserve_window *rsv)
{
	/* a valid reservation end block could not be 0 */
	return rsv->_rsv_end == EXT3_RESERVE_WINDOW_NOT_ALLOCATED;
}

/**
 * ext3_init_block_alloc_info()
 * @inode:		file inode structure
 *
 * Allocate and initialize the	reservation window structure, and
 * link the window to the ext3 inode structure at last
 *
 * The reservation window structure is only dynamically allocated
 * and linked to ext3 inode the first time the open file
 * needs a new block. So, before every ext3_new_block(s) call, for
 * regular files, we should check whether the reservation window
 * structure exists or not. In the latter case, this function is called.
 * Fail to do so will result in block reservation being turned off for that
 * open file.
 *
 * This function is called from ext3_get_blocks_handle(), also called
 * when setting the reservation window size through ioctl before the file
 * is open for write (needs block allocation).
 *
 * Needs truncate_mutex protection prior to call this function.
 */
void ext3_init_block_alloc_info(struct inode *inode)
{
	struct ext3_inode_info *ei = EXT3_I(inode);
	struct ext3_block_alloc_info *block_i;
	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;

	block_i = kmalloc(sizeof(*block_i), GFP_NOFS);
	if (block_i) {
		struct ext3_reserve_window_node *rsv = &block_i->rsv_window_node;

		rsv->rsv_start = EXT3_RESERVE_WINDOW_NOT_ALLOCATED;
		rsv->rsv_end = EXT3_RESERVE_WINDOW_NOT_ALLOCATED;

		/*
		 * if filesystem is mounted with NORESERVATION, the goal
		 * reservation window size is set to zero to indicate
		 * block reservation is off
		 */
		if (!test_opt(sb, RESERVATION))
			rsv->rsv_goal_size = 0;
		else
			rsv->rsv_goal_size = EXT3_DEFAULT_RESERVE_BLOCKS;
		rsv->rsv_alloc_hit = 0;
		block_i->last_alloc_logical_block = 0;
		block_i->last_alloc_physical_block = 0;
	}
	ei->i_block_alloc_info = block_i;
}

/**
 * ext3_discard_reservation()
 * @inode:		inode
 *
 * Discard(free) block reservation window on last file close, or truncate
 * or at last iput().
 *
 * It is being called in three cases:
 *	ext3_release_file(): last writer close the file
 *	ext3_clear_inode(): last iput(), when nobody link to this file.
 *	ext3_truncate(): when the block indirect map is about to change.
 *
 */
void ext3_discard_reservation(struct inode *inode)
{
	struct ext3_inode_info *ei = EXT3_I(inode);
	struct ext3_block_alloc_info *block_i = ei->i_block_alloc_info;
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *rsv;
	spinlock_t *rsv_lock = &EXT3_SB(inode->i_sb)->s_rsv_window_lock;

	if (!block_i)
		return;

	rsv = &block_i->rsv_window_node;
	if (!rsv_is_empty(&rsv->rsv_window)) {
		spin_lock(rsv_lock);
		if (!rsv_is_empty(&rsv->rsv_window)) {
			trace_ext3_discard_reservation(inode, rsv);
			rsv_window_remove(inode->i_sb, rsv);
		}
		spin_unlock(rsv_lock);
	}
}

/**
 * ext3_free_blocks_sb() -- Free given blocks and update quota
 * @handle:			handle to this transaction
 * @sb:				super block
 * @block:			start physical block to free
 * @count:			number of blocks to free
 * @pdquot_freed_blocks:	pointer to quota
 */
void ext3_free_blocks_sb(handle_t *handle, struct super_block *sb,
			 ext3_fsblk_t block, unsigned long count,
			 unsigned long *pdquot_freed_blocks)
{
	struct buffer_head *bitmap_bh = NULL;
	struct buffer_head *gd_bh;
	unsigned long block_group;
	ext3_grpblk_t bit;
	unsigned long i;
	unsigned long overflow;
	struct ext3_group_desc * desc;
	struct ext3_super_block * es;
	struct ext3_sb_info *sbi;
	int err = 0, ret;
	ext3_grpblk_t group_freed;

	*pdquot_freed_blocks = 0;
	sbi = EXT3_SB(sb);
	es = sbi->s_es;
	if (block < le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block) ||
	    block + count < block ||
	    block + count > le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count)) {
		ext3_error (sb, "ext3_free_blocks",
			    "Freeing blocks not in datazone - "
			    "block = "E3FSBLK", count = %lu", block, count);
		goto error_return;
	}

	ext3_debug ("freeing block(s) %lu-%lu\n", block, block + count - 1);

do_more:
	overflow = 0;
	block_group = (block - le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block)) /
		      EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
	bit = (block - le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block)) %
		      EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
	/*
	 * Check to see if we are freeing blocks across a group
	 * boundary.
	 */
	if (bit + count > EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb)) {
		overflow = bit + count - EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
		count -= overflow;
	}
	brelse(bitmap_bh);
	bitmap_bh = read_block_bitmap(sb, block_group);
	if (!bitmap_bh)
		goto error_return;
	desc = ext3_get_group_desc (sb, block_group, &gd_bh);
	if (!desc)
		goto error_return;

	if (in_range (le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_block_bitmap), block, count) ||
	    in_range (le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_inode_bitmap), block, count) ||
	    in_range (block, le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_inode_table),
		      sbi->s_itb_per_group) ||
	    in_range (block + count - 1, le32_to_cpu(desc->bg_inode_table),
		      sbi->s_itb_per_group)) {
		ext3_error (sb, "ext3_free_blocks",
			    "Freeing blocks in system zones - "
			    "Block = "E3FSBLK", count = %lu",
			    block, count);
		goto error_return;
	}

	/*
	 * We are about to start releasing blocks in the bitmap,
	 * so we need undo access.
	 */
	/* @@@ check errors */
	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "getting undo access");
	err = ext3_journal_get_undo_access(handle, bitmap_bh);
	if (err)
		goto error_return;

	/*
	 * We are about to modify some metadata.  Call the journal APIs
	 * to unshare ->b_data if a currently-committing transaction is
	 * using it
	 */
	BUFFER_TRACE(gd_bh, "get_write_access");
	err = ext3_journal_get_write_access(handle, gd_bh);
	if (err)
		goto error_return;

	jbd_lock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);

	for (i = 0, group_freed = 0; i < count; i++) {
		/*
		 * An HJ special.  This is expensive...
		 */
#ifdef CONFIG_JBD_DEBUG
		jbd_unlock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
		{
			struct buffer_head *debug_bh;
			debug_bh = sb_find_get_block(sb, block + i);
			if (debug_bh) {
				BUFFER_TRACE(debug_bh, "Deleted!");
				if (!bh2jh(bitmap_bh)->b_committed_data)
					BUFFER_TRACE(debug_bh,
						"No committed data in bitmap");
				BUFFER_TRACE2(debug_bh, bitmap_bh, "bitmap");
				__brelse(debug_bh);
			}
		}
		jbd_lock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
#endif
		if (need_resched()) {
			jbd_unlock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
			cond_resched();
			jbd_lock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
		}
		/* @@@ This prevents newly-allocated data from being
		 * freed and then reallocated within the same
		 * transaction.
		 *
		 * Ideally we would want to allow that to happen, but to
		 * do so requires making journal_forget() capable of
		 * revoking the queued write of a data block, which
		 * implies blocking on the journal lock.  *forget()
		 * cannot block due to truncate races.
		 *
		 * Eventually we can fix this by making journal_forget()
		 * return a status indicating whether or not it was able
		 * to revoke the buffer.  On successful revoke, it is
		 * safe not to set the allocation bit in the committed
		 * bitmap, because we know that there is no outstanding
		 * activity on the buffer any more and so it is safe to
		 * reallocate it.
		 */
		BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "set in b_committed_data");
		J_ASSERT_BH(bitmap_bh,
				bh2jh(bitmap_bh)->b_committed_data != NULL);
		ext3_set_bit_atomic(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, block_group), bit + i,
				bh2jh(bitmap_bh)->b_committed_data);

		/*
		 * We clear the bit in the bitmap after setting the committed
		 * data bit, because this is the reverse order to that which
		 * the allocator uses.
		 */
		BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "clear bit");
		if (!ext3_clear_bit_atomic(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, block_group),
						bit + i, bitmap_bh->b_data)) {
			jbd_unlock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
			ext3_error(sb, __func__,
				"bit already cleared for block "E3FSBLK,
				 block + i);
			jbd_lock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
			BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "bit already cleared");
		} else {
			group_freed++;
		}
	}
	jbd_unlock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);

	spin_lock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, block_group));
	le16_add_cpu(&desc->bg_free_blocks_count, group_freed);
	spin_unlock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, block_group));
	percpu_counter_add(&sbi->s_freeblocks_counter, count);

	/* We dirtied the bitmap block */
	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "dirtied bitmap block");
	err = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, bitmap_bh);

	/* And the group descriptor block */
	BUFFER_TRACE(gd_bh, "dirtied group descriptor block");
	ret = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, gd_bh);
	if (!err) err = ret;
	*pdquot_freed_blocks += group_freed;

	if (overflow && !err) {
		block += count;
		count = overflow;
		goto do_more;
	}

error_return:
	brelse(bitmap_bh);
	ext3_std_error(sb, err);
	return;
}

/**
 * ext3_free_blocks() -- Free given blocks and update quota
 * @handle:		handle for this transaction
 * @inode:		inode
 * @block:		start physical block to free
 * @count:		number of blocks to count
 */
void ext3_free_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
			ext3_fsblk_t block, unsigned long count)
{
	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
	unsigned long dquot_freed_blocks;

	trace_ext3_free_blocks(inode, block, count);
	ext3_free_blocks_sb(handle, sb, block, count, &dquot_freed_blocks);
	if (dquot_freed_blocks)
		dquot_free_block(inode, dquot_freed_blocks);
	return;
}

/**
 * ext3_test_allocatable()
 * @nr:			given allocation block group
 * @bh:			bufferhead contains the bitmap of the given block group
 *
 * For ext3 allocations, we must not reuse any blocks which are
 * allocated in the bitmap buffer's "last committed data" copy.  This
 * prevents deletes from freeing up the page for reuse until we have
 * committed the delete transaction.
 *
 * If we didn't do this, then deleting something and reallocating it as
 * data would allow the old block to be overwritten before the
 * transaction committed (because we force data to disk before commit).
 * This would lead to corruption if we crashed between overwriting the
 * data and committing the delete.
 *
 * @@@ We may want to make this allocation behaviour conditional on
 * data-writes at some point, and disable it for metadata allocations or
 * sync-data inodes.
 */
static int ext3_test_allocatable(ext3_grpblk_t nr, struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	int ret;
	struct journal_head *jh = bh2jh(bh);

	if (ext3_test_bit(nr, bh->b_data))
		return 0;

	jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);
	if (!jh->b_committed_data)
		ret = 1;
	else
		ret = !ext3_test_bit(nr, jh->b_committed_data);
	jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
	return ret;
}

/**
 * bitmap_search_next_usable_block()
 * @start:		the starting block (group relative) of the search
 * @bh:			bufferhead contains the block group bitmap
 * @maxblocks:		the ending block (group relative) of the reservation
 *
 * The bitmap search --- search forward alternately through the actual
 * bitmap on disk and the last-committed copy in journal, until we find a
 * bit free in both bitmaps.
 */
static ext3_grpblk_t
bitmap_search_next_usable_block(ext3_grpblk_t start, struct buffer_head *bh,
					ext3_grpblk_t maxblocks)
{
	ext3_grpblk_t next;
	struct journal_head *jh = bh2jh(bh);

	while (start < maxblocks) {
		next = ext3_find_next_zero_bit(bh->b_data, maxblocks, start);
		if (next >= maxblocks)
			return -1;
		if (ext3_test_allocatable(next, bh))
			return next;
		jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);
		if (jh->b_committed_data)
			start = ext3_find_next_zero_bit(jh->b_committed_data,
							maxblocks, next);
		jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
	}
	return -1;
}

/**
 * find_next_usable_block()
 * @start:		the starting block (group relative) to find next
 *			allocatable block in bitmap.
 * @bh:			bufferhead contains the block group bitmap
 * @maxblocks:		the ending block (group relative) for the search
 *
 * Find an allocatable block in a bitmap.  We honor both the bitmap and
 * its last-committed copy (if that exists), and perform the "most
 * appropriate allocation" algorithm of looking for a free block near
 * the initial goal; then for a free byte somewhere in the bitmap; then
 * for any free bit in the bitmap.
 */
static ext3_grpblk_t
find_next_usable_block(ext3_grpblk_t start, struct buffer_head *bh,
			ext3_grpblk_t maxblocks)
{
	ext3_grpblk_t here, next;
	char *p, *r;

	if (start > 0) {
		/*
		 * The goal was occupied; search forward for a free
		 * block within the next XX blocks.
		 *
		 * end_goal is more or less random, but it has to be
		 * less than EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP. Aligning up to the
		 * next 64-bit boundary is simple..
		 */
		ext3_grpblk_t end_goal = (start + 63) & ~63;
		if (end_goal > maxblocks)
			end_goal = maxblocks;
		here = ext3_find_next_zero_bit(bh->b_data, end_goal, start);
		if (here < end_goal && ext3_test_allocatable(here, bh))
			return here;
		ext3_debug("Bit not found near goal\n");
	}

	here = start;
	if (here < 0)
		here = 0;

	p = bh->b_data + (here >> 3);
	r = memscan(p, 0, ((maxblocks + 7) >> 3) - (here >> 3));
	next = (r - bh->b_data) << 3;

	if (next < maxblocks && next >= start && ext3_test_allocatable(next, bh))
		return next;

	/*
	 * The bitmap search --- search forward alternately through the actual
	 * bitmap and the last-committed copy until we find a bit free in
	 * both
	 */
	here = bitmap_search_next_usable_block(here, bh, maxblocks);
	return here;
}

/**
 * claim_block()
 * @lock:		the spin lock for this block group
 * @block:		the free block (group relative) to allocate
 * @bh:			the buffer_head contains the block group bitmap
 *
 * We think we can allocate this block in this bitmap.  Try to set the bit.
 * If that succeeds then check that nobody has allocated and then freed the
 * block since we saw that is was not marked in b_committed_data.  If it _was_
 * allocated and freed then clear the bit in the bitmap again and return
 * zero (failure).
 */
static inline int
claim_block(spinlock_t *lock, ext3_grpblk_t block, struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	struct journal_head *jh = bh2jh(bh);
	int ret;

	if (ext3_set_bit_atomic(lock, block, bh->b_data))
		return 0;
	jbd_lock_bh_state(bh);
	if (jh->b_committed_data && ext3_test_bit(block,jh->b_committed_data)) {
		ext3_clear_bit_atomic(lock, block, bh->b_data);
		ret = 0;
	} else {
		ret = 1;
	}
	jbd_unlock_bh_state(bh);
	return ret;
}

/**
 * ext3_try_to_allocate()
 * @sb:			superblock
 * @handle:		handle to this transaction
 * @group:		given allocation block group
 * @bitmap_bh:		bufferhead holds the block bitmap
 * @grp_goal:		given target block within the group
 * @count:		target number of blocks to allocate
 * @my_rsv:		reservation window
 *
 * Attempt to allocate blocks within a give range. Set the range of allocation
 * first, then find the first free bit(s) from the bitmap (within the range),
 * and at last, allocate the blocks by claiming the found free bit as allocated.
 *
 * To set the range of this allocation:
 *	if there is a reservation window, only try to allocate block(s) from the
 *	file's own reservation window;
 *	Otherwise, the allocation range starts from the give goal block, ends at
 *	the block group's last block.
 *
 * If we failed to allocate the desired block then we may end up crossing to a
 * new bitmap.  In that case we must release write access to the old one via
 * ext3_journal_release_buffer(), else we'll run out of credits.
 */
static ext3_grpblk_t
ext3_try_to_allocate(struct super_block *sb, handle_t *handle, int group,
			struct buffer_head *bitmap_bh, ext3_grpblk_t grp_goal,
			unsigned long *count, struct ext3_reserve_window *my_rsv)
{
	ext3_fsblk_t group_first_block;
	ext3_grpblk_t start, end;
	unsigned long num = 0;

	/* we do allocation within the reservation window if we have a window */
	if (my_rsv) {
		group_first_block = ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group);
		if (my_rsv->_rsv_start >= group_first_block)
			start = my_rsv->_rsv_start - group_first_block;
		else
			/* reservation window cross group boundary */
			start = 0;
		end = my_rsv->_rsv_end - group_first_block + 1;
		if (end > EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb))
			/* reservation window crosses group boundary */
			end = EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
		if ((start <= grp_goal) && (grp_goal < end))
			start = grp_goal;
		else
			grp_goal = -1;
	} else {
		if (grp_goal > 0)
			start = grp_goal;
		else
			start = 0;
		end = EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
	}

	BUG_ON(start > EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb));

repeat:
	if (grp_goal < 0 || !ext3_test_allocatable(grp_goal, bitmap_bh)) {
		grp_goal = find_next_usable_block(start, bitmap_bh, end);
		if (grp_goal < 0)
			goto fail_access;
		if (!my_rsv) {
			int i;

			for (i = 0; i < 7 && grp_goal > start &&
					ext3_test_allocatable(grp_goal - 1,
								bitmap_bh);
					i++, grp_goal--)
				;
		}
	}
	start = grp_goal;

	if (!claim_block(sb_bgl_lock(EXT3_SB(sb), group),
		grp_goal, bitmap_bh)) {
		/*
		 * The block was allocated by another thread, or it was
		 * allocated and then freed by another thread
		 */
		start++;
		grp_goal++;
		if (start >= end)
			goto fail_access;
		goto repeat;
	}
	num++;
	grp_goal++;
	while (num < *count && grp_goal < end
		&& ext3_test_allocatable(grp_goal, bitmap_bh)
		&& claim_block(sb_bgl_lock(EXT3_SB(sb), group),
				grp_goal, bitmap_bh)) {
		num++;
		grp_goal++;
	}
	*count = num;
	return grp_goal - num;
fail_access:
	*count = num;
	return -1;
}

/**
 *	find_next_reservable_window():
 *		find a reservable space within the given range.
 *		It does not allocate the reservation window for now:
 *		alloc_new_reservation() will do the work later.
 *
 *	@search_head: the head of the searching list;
 *		This is not necessarily the list head of the whole filesystem
 *
 *		We have both head and start_block to assist the search
 *		for the reservable space. The list starts from head,
 *		but we will shift to the place where start_block is,
 *		then start from there, when looking for a reservable space.
 *
 *	@my_rsv: the reservation window
 *
 *	@sb: the super block
 *
 *	@start_block: the first block we consider to start
 *			the real search from
 *
 *	@last_block:
 *		the maximum block number that our goal reservable space
 *		could start from. This is normally the last block in this
 *		group. The search will end when we found the start of next
 *		possible reservable space is out of this boundary.
 *		This could handle the cross boundary reservation window
 *		request.
 *
 *	basically we search from the given range, rather than the whole
 *	reservation double linked list, (start_block, last_block)
 *	to find a free region that is of my size and has not
 *	been reserved.
 *
 */
static int find_next_reservable_window(
				struct ext3_reserve_window_node *search_head,
				struct ext3_reserve_window_node *my_rsv,
				struct super_block * sb,
				ext3_fsblk_t start_block,
				ext3_fsblk_t last_block)
{
	struct rb_node *next;
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *rsv, *prev;
	ext3_fsblk_t cur;
	int size = my_rsv->rsv_goal_size;

	/* TODO: make the start of the reservation window byte-aligned */
	/* cur = *start_block & ~7;*/
	cur = start_block;
	rsv = search_head;
	if (!rsv)
		return -1;

	while (1) {
		if (cur <= rsv->rsv_end)
			cur = rsv->rsv_end + 1;

		/* TODO?
		 * in the case we could not find a reservable space
		 * that is what is expected, during the re-search, we could
		 * remember what's the largest reservable space we could have
		 * and return that one.
		 *
		 * For now it will fail if we could not find the reservable
		 * space with expected-size (or more)...
		 */
		if (cur > last_block)
			return -1;		/* fail */

		prev = rsv;
		next = rb_next(&rsv->rsv_node);
		rsv = rb_entry(next,struct ext3_reserve_window_node,rsv_node);

		/*
		 * Reached the last reservation, we can just append to the
		 * previous one.
		 */
		if (!next)
			break;

		if (cur + size <= rsv->rsv_start) {
			/*
			 * Found a reserveable space big enough.  We could
			 * have a reservation across the group boundary here
			 */
			break;
		}
	}
	/*
	 * we come here either :
	 * when we reach the end of the whole list,
	 * and there is empty reservable space after last entry in the list.
	 * append it to the end of the list.
	 *
	 * or we found one reservable space in the middle of the list,
	 * return the reservation window that we could append to.
	 * succeed.
	 */

	if ((prev != my_rsv) && (!rsv_is_empty(&my_rsv->rsv_window)))
		rsv_window_remove(sb, my_rsv);

	/*
	 * Let's book the whole available window for now.  We will check the
	 * disk bitmap later and then, if there are free blocks then we adjust
	 * the window size if it's larger than requested.
	 * Otherwise, we will remove this node from the tree next time
	 * call find_next_reservable_window.
	 */
	my_rsv->rsv_start = cur;
	my_rsv->rsv_end = cur + size - 1;
	my_rsv->rsv_alloc_hit = 0;

	if (prev != my_rsv)
		ext3_rsv_window_add(sb, my_rsv);

	return 0;
}

/**
 *	alloc_new_reservation()--allocate a new reservation window
 *
 *		To make a new reservation, we search part of the filesystem
 *		reservation list (the list that inside the group). We try to
 *		allocate a new reservation window near the allocation goal,
 *		or the beginning of the group, if there is no goal.
 *
 *		We first find a reservable space after the goal, then from
 *		there, we check the bitmap for the first free block after
 *		it. If there is no free block until the end of group, then the
 *		whole group is full, we failed. Otherwise, check if the free
 *		block is inside the expected reservable space, if so, we
 *		succeed.
 *		If the first free block is outside the reservable space, then
 *		start from the first free block, we search for next available
 *		space, and go on.
 *
 *	on succeed, a new reservation will be found and inserted into the list
 *	It contains at least one free block, and it does not overlap with other
 *	reservation windows.
 *
 *	failed: we failed to find a reservation window in this group
 *
 *	@my_rsv: the reservation window
 *
 *	@grp_goal: The goal (group-relative).  It is where the search for a
 *		free reservable space should start from.
 *		if we have a grp_goal(grp_goal >0 ), then start from there,
 *		no grp_goal(grp_goal = -1), we start from the first block
 *		of the group.
 *
 *	@sb: the super block
 *	@group: the group we are trying to allocate in
 *	@bitmap_bh: the block group block bitmap
 *
 */
static int alloc_new_reservation(struct ext3_reserve_window_node *my_rsv,
		ext3_grpblk_t grp_goal, struct super_block *sb,
		unsigned int group, struct buffer_head *bitmap_bh)
{
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *search_head;
	ext3_fsblk_t group_first_block, group_end_block, start_block;
	ext3_grpblk_t first_free_block;
	struct rb_root *fs_rsv_root = &EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_root;
	unsigned long size;
	int ret;
	spinlock_t *rsv_lock = &EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_lock;

	group_first_block = ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group);
	group_end_block = group_first_block + (EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) - 1);

	if (grp_goal < 0)
		start_block = group_first_block;
	else
		start_block = grp_goal + group_first_block;

	trace_ext3_alloc_new_reservation(sb, start_block);
	size = my_rsv->rsv_goal_size;

	if (!rsv_is_empty(&my_rsv->rsv_window)) {
		/*
		 * if the old reservation is cross group boundary
		 * and if the goal is inside the old reservation window,
		 * we will come here when we just failed to allocate from
		 * the first part of the window. We still have another part
		 * that belongs to the next group. In this case, there is no
		 * point to discard our window and try to allocate a new one
		 * in this group(which will fail). we should
		 * keep the reservation window, just simply move on.
		 *
		 * Maybe we could shift the start block of the reservation
		 * window to the first block of next group.
		 */

		if ((my_rsv->rsv_start <= group_end_block) &&
				(my_rsv->rsv_end > group_end_block) &&
				(start_block >= my_rsv->rsv_start))
			return -1;

		if ((my_rsv->rsv_alloc_hit >
		     (my_rsv->rsv_end - my_rsv->rsv_start + 1) / 2)) {
			/*
			 * if the previously allocation hit ratio is
			 * greater than 1/2, then we double the size of
			 * the reservation window the next time,
			 * otherwise we keep the same size window
			 */
			size = size * 2;
			if (size > EXT3_MAX_RESERVE_BLOCKS)
				size = EXT3_MAX_RESERVE_BLOCKS;
			my_rsv->rsv_goal_size= size;
		}
	}

	spin_lock(rsv_lock);
	/*
	 * shift the search start to the window near the goal block
	 */
	search_head = search_reserve_window(fs_rsv_root, start_block);

	/*
	 * find_next_reservable_window() simply finds a reservable window
	 * inside the given range(start_block, group_end_block).
	 *
	 * To make sure the reservation window has a free bit inside it, we
	 * need to check the bitmap after we found a reservable window.
	 */
retry:
	ret = find_next_reservable_window(search_head, my_rsv, sb,
						start_block, group_end_block);

	if (ret == -1) {
		if (!rsv_is_empty(&my_rsv->rsv_window))
			rsv_window_remove(sb, my_rsv);
		spin_unlock(rsv_lock);
		return -1;
	}

	/*
	 * On success, find_next_reservable_window() returns the
	 * reservation window where there is a reservable space after it.
	 * Before we reserve this reservable space, we need
	 * to make sure there is at least a free block inside this region.
	 *
	 * searching the first free bit on the block bitmap and copy of
	 * last committed bitmap alternatively, until we found a allocatable
	 * block. Search start from the start block of the reservable space
	 * we just found.
	 */
	spin_unlock(rsv_lock);
	first_free_block = bitmap_search_next_usable_block(
			my_rsv->rsv_start - group_first_block,
			bitmap_bh, group_end_block - group_first_block + 1);

	if (first_free_block < 0) {
		/*
		 * no free block left on the bitmap, no point
		 * to reserve the space. return failed.
		 */
		spin_lock(rsv_lock);
		if (!rsv_is_empty(&my_rsv->rsv_window))
			rsv_window_remove(sb, my_rsv);
		spin_unlock(rsv_lock);
		return -1;		/* failed */
	}

	start_block = first_free_block + group_first_block;
	/*
	 * check if the first free block is within the
	 * free space we just reserved
	 */
	if (start_block >= my_rsv->rsv_start &&
	    start_block <= my_rsv->rsv_end) {
		trace_ext3_reserved(sb, start_block, my_rsv);
		return 0;		/* success */
	}
	/*
	 * if the first free bit we found is out of the reservable space
	 * continue search for next reservable space,
	 * start from where the free block is,
	 * we also shift the list head to where we stopped last time
	 */
	search_head = my_rsv;
	spin_lock(rsv_lock);
	goto retry;
}

/**
 * try_to_extend_reservation()
 * @my_rsv:		given reservation window
 * @sb:			super block
 * @size:		the delta to extend
 *
 * Attempt to expand the reservation window large enough to have
 * required number of free blocks
 *
 * Since ext3_try_to_allocate() will always allocate blocks within
 * the reservation window range, if the window size is too small,
 * multiple blocks allocation has to stop at the end of the reservation
 * window. To make this more efficient, given the total number of
 * blocks needed and the current size of the window, we try to
 * expand the reservation window size if necessary on a best-effort
 * basis before ext3_new_blocks() tries to allocate blocks,
 */
static void try_to_extend_reservation(struct ext3_reserve_window_node *my_rsv,
			struct super_block *sb, int size)
{
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *next_rsv;
	struct rb_node *next;
	spinlock_t *rsv_lock = &EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_lock;

	if (!spin_trylock(rsv_lock))
		return;

	next = rb_next(&my_rsv->rsv_node);

	if (!next)
		my_rsv->rsv_end += size;
	else {
		next_rsv = rb_entry(next, struct ext3_reserve_window_node, rsv_node);

		if ((next_rsv->rsv_start - my_rsv->rsv_end - 1) >= size)
			my_rsv->rsv_end += size;
		else
			my_rsv->rsv_end = next_rsv->rsv_start - 1;
	}
	spin_unlock(rsv_lock);
}

/**
 * ext3_try_to_allocate_with_rsv()
 * @sb:			superblock
 * @handle:		handle to this transaction
 * @group:		given allocation block group
 * @bitmap_bh:		bufferhead holds the block bitmap
 * @grp_goal:		given target block within the group
 * @my_rsv:		reservation window
 * @count:		target number of blocks to allocate
 * @errp:		pointer to store the error code
 *
 * This is the main function used to allocate a new block and its reservation
 * window.
 *
 * Each time when a new block allocation is need, first try to allocate from
 * its own reservation.  If it does not have a reservation window, instead of
 * looking for a free bit on bitmap first, then look up the reservation list to
 * see if it is inside somebody else's reservation window, we try to allocate a
 * reservation window for it starting from the goal first. Then do the block
 * allocation within the reservation window.
 *
 * This will avoid keeping on searching the reservation list again and
 * again when somebody is looking for a free block (without
 * reservation), and there are lots of free blocks, but they are all
 * being reserved.
 *
 * We use a red-black tree for the per-filesystem reservation list.
 *
 */
static ext3_grpblk_t
ext3_try_to_allocate_with_rsv(struct super_block *sb, handle_t *handle,
			unsigned int group, struct buffer_head *bitmap_bh,
			ext3_grpblk_t grp_goal,
			struct ext3_reserve_window_node * my_rsv,
			unsigned long *count, int *errp)
{
	ext3_fsblk_t group_first_block, group_last_block;
	ext3_grpblk_t ret = 0;
	int fatal;
	unsigned long num = *count;

	*errp = 0;

	/*
	 * Make sure we use undo access for the bitmap, because it is critical
	 * that we do the frozen_data COW on bitmap buffers in all cases even
	 * if the buffer is in BJ_Forget state in the committing transaction.
	 */
	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "get undo access for new block");
	fatal = ext3_journal_get_undo_access(handle, bitmap_bh);
	if (fatal) {
		*errp = fatal;
		return -1;
	}

	/*
	 * we don't deal with reservation when
	 * filesystem is mounted without reservation
	 * or the file is not a regular file
	 * or last attempt to allocate a block with reservation turned on failed
	 */
	if (my_rsv == NULL ) {
		ret = ext3_try_to_allocate(sb, handle, group, bitmap_bh,
						grp_goal, count, NULL);
		goto out;
	}
	/*
	 * grp_goal is a group relative block number (if there is a goal)
	 * 0 <= grp_goal < EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb)
	 * first block is a filesystem wide block number
	 * first block is the block number of the first block in this group
	 */
	group_first_block = ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group);
	group_last_block = group_first_block + (EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) - 1);

	/*
	 * Basically we will allocate a new block from inode's reservation
	 * window.
	 *
	 * We need to allocate a new reservation window, if:
	 * a) inode does not have a reservation window; or
	 * b) last attempt to allocate a block from existing reservation
	 *    failed; or
	 * c) we come here with a goal and with a reservation window
	 *
	 * We do not need to allocate a new reservation window if we come here
	 * at the beginning with a goal and the goal is inside the window, or
	 * we don't have a goal but already have a reservation window.
	 * then we could go to allocate from the reservation window directly.
	 */
	while (1) {
		if (rsv_is_empty(&my_rsv->rsv_window) || (ret < 0) ||
			!goal_in_my_reservation(&my_rsv->rsv_window,
						grp_goal, group, sb)) {
			if (my_rsv->rsv_goal_size < *count)
				my_rsv->rsv_goal_size = *count;
			ret = alloc_new_reservation(my_rsv, grp_goal, sb,
							group, bitmap_bh);
			if (ret < 0)
				break;			/* failed */

			if (!goal_in_my_reservation(&my_rsv->rsv_window,
							grp_goal, group, sb))
				grp_goal = -1;
		} else if (grp_goal >= 0) {
			int curr = my_rsv->rsv_end -
					(grp_goal + group_first_block) + 1;

			if (curr < *count)
				try_to_extend_reservation(my_rsv, sb,
							*count - curr);
		}

		if ((my_rsv->rsv_start > group_last_block) ||
				(my_rsv->rsv_end < group_first_block)) {
			rsv_window_dump(&EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_root, 1);
			BUG();
		}
		ret = ext3_try_to_allocate(sb, handle, group, bitmap_bh,
					   grp_goal, &num, &my_rsv->rsv_window);
		if (ret >= 0) {
			my_rsv->rsv_alloc_hit += num;
			*count = num;
			break;				/* succeed */
		}
		num = *count;
	}
out:
	if (ret >= 0) {
		BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "journal_dirty_metadata for "
					"bitmap block");
		fatal = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, bitmap_bh);
		if (fatal) {
			*errp = fatal;
			return -1;
		}
		return ret;
	}

	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "journal_release_buffer");
	ext3_journal_release_buffer(handle, bitmap_bh);
	return ret;
}

/**
 * ext3_has_free_blocks()
 * @sbi:		in-core super block structure.
 *
 * Check if filesystem has at least 1 free block available for allocation.
 */
static int ext3_has_free_blocks(struct ext3_sb_info *sbi, int use_reservation)
{
	ext3_fsblk_t free_blocks, root_blocks;

	free_blocks = percpu_counter_read_positive(&sbi->s_freeblocks_counter);
	root_blocks = le32_to_cpu(sbi->s_es->s_r_blocks_count);
	if (free_blocks < root_blocks + 1 && !capable(CAP_SYS_RESOURCE) &&
		!use_reservation && !uid_eq(sbi->s_resuid, current_fsuid()) &&
		(gid_eq(sbi->s_resgid, GLOBAL_ROOT_GID) ||
		 !in_group_p (sbi->s_resgid))) {
		return 0;
	}
	return 1;
}

/**
 * ext3_should_retry_alloc()
 * @sb:			super block
 * @retries		number of attemps has been made
 *
 * ext3_should_retry_alloc() is called when ENOSPC is returned, and if
 * it is profitable to retry the operation, this function will wait
 * for the current or committing transaction to complete, and then
 * return TRUE.
 *
 * if the total number of retries exceed three times, return FALSE.
 */
int ext3_should_retry_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int *retries)
{
	if (!ext3_has_free_blocks(EXT3_SB(sb), 0) || (*retries)++ > 3)
		return 0;

	jbd_debug(1, "%s: retrying operation after ENOSPC\n", sb->s_id);

	return journal_force_commit_nested(EXT3_SB(sb)->s_journal);
}

/**
 * ext3_new_blocks() -- core block(s) allocation function
 * @handle:		handle to this transaction
 * @inode:		file inode
 * @goal:		given target block(filesystem wide)
 * @count:		target number of blocks to allocate
 * @errp:		error code
 *
 * ext3_new_blocks uses a goal block to assist allocation.  It tries to
 * allocate block(s) from the block group contains the goal block first. If that
 * fails, it will try to allocate block(s) from other block groups without
 * any specific goal block.
 *
 */
ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
			ext3_fsblk_t goal, unsigned long *count, int *errp)
{
	struct buffer_head *bitmap_bh = NULL;
	struct buffer_head *gdp_bh;
	int group_no;
	int goal_group;
	ext3_grpblk_t grp_target_blk;	/* blockgroup relative goal block */
	ext3_grpblk_t grp_alloc_blk;	/* blockgroup-relative allocated block*/
	ext3_fsblk_t ret_block;		/* filesyetem-wide allocated block */
	int bgi;			/* blockgroup iteration index */
	int fatal = 0, err;
	int performed_allocation = 0;
	ext3_grpblk_t free_blocks;	/* number of free blocks in a group */
	struct super_block *sb;
	struct ext3_group_desc *gdp;
	struct ext3_super_block *es;
	struct ext3_sb_info *sbi;
	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *my_rsv = NULL;
	struct ext3_block_alloc_info *block_i;
	unsigned short windowsz = 0;
#ifdef EXT3FS_DEBUG
	static int goal_hits, goal_attempts;
#endif
	unsigned long ngroups;
	unsigned long num = *count;

	*errp = -ENOSPC;
	sb = inode->i_sb;

	/*
	 * Check quota for allocation of this block.
	 */
	err = dquot_alloc_block(inode, num);
	if (err) {
		*errp = err;
		return 0;
	}

	trace_ext3_request_blocks(inode, goal, num);

	sbi = EXT3_SB(sb);
	es = sbi->s_es;
	ext3_debug("goal=%lu.\n", goal);
	/*
	 * Allocate a block from reservation only when
	 * filesystem is mounted with reservation(default,-o reservation), and
	 * it's a regular file, and
	 * the desired window size is greater than 0 (One could use ioctl
	 * command EXT3_IOC_SETRSVSZ to set the window size to 0 to turn off
	 * reservation on that particular file)
	 */
	block_i = EXT3_I(inode)->i_block_alloc_info;
	if (block_i && ((windowsz = block_i->rsv_window_node.rsv_goal_size) > 0))
		my_rsv = &block_i->rsv_window_node;

	if (!ext3_has_free_blocks(sbi, IS_NOQUOTA(inode))) {
		*errp = -ENOSPC;
		goto out;
	}

	/*
	 * First, test whether the goal block is free.
	 */
	if (goal < le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block) ||
	    goal >= le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count))
		goal = le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block);
	group_no = (goal - le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block)) /
			EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
	goal_group = group_no;
retry_alloc:
	gdp = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, group_no, &gdp_bh);
	if (!gdp)
		goto io_error;

	free_blocks = le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count);
	/*
	 * if there is not enough free blocks to make a new resevation
	 * turn off reservation for this allocation
	 */
	if (my_rsv && (free_blocks < windowsz)
		&& (free_blocks > 0)
		&& (rsv_is_empty(&my_rsv->rsv_window)))
		my_rsv = NULL;

	if (free_blocks > 0) {
		grp_target_blk = ((goal - le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block)) %
				EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb));
		bitmap_bh = read_block_bitmap(sb, group_no);
		if (!bitmap_bh)
			goto io_error;
		grp_alloc_blk = ext3_try_to_allocate_with_rsv(sb, handle,
					group_no, bitmap_bh, grp_target_blk,
					my_rsv,	&num, &fatal);
		if (fatal)
			goto out;
		if (grp_alloc_blk >= 0)
			goto allocated;
	}

	ngroups = EXT3_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
	smp_rmb();

	/*
	 * Now search the rest of the groups.  We assume that
	 * group_no and gdp correctly point to the last group visited.
	 */
	for (bgi = 0; bgi < ngroups; bgi++) {
		group_no++;
		if (group_no >= ngroups)
			group_no = 0;
		gdp = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, group_no, &gdp_bh);
		if (!gdp)
			goto io_error;
		free_blocks = le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count);
		/*
		 * skip this group (and avoid loading bitmap) if there
		 * are no free blocks
		 */
		if (!free_blocks)
			continue;
		/*
		 * skip this group if the number of
		 * free blocks is less than half of the reservation
		 * window size.
		 */
		if (my_rsv && (free_blocks <= (windowsz/2)))
			continue;

		brelse(bitmap_bh);
		bitmap_bh = read_block_bitmap(sb, group_no);
		if (!bitmap_bh)
			goto io_error;
		/*
		 * try to allocate block(s) from this group, without a goal(-1).
		 */
		grp_alloc_blk = ext3_try_to_allocate_with_rsv(sb, handle,
					group_no, bitmap_bh, -1, my_rsv,
					&num, &fatal);
		if (fatal)
			goto out;
		if (grp_alloc_blk >= 0)
			goto allocated;
	}
	/*
	 * We may end up a bogus earlier ENOSPC error due to
	 * filesystem is "full" of reservations, but
	 * there maybe indeed free blocks available on disk
	 * In this case, we just forget about the reservations
	 * just do block allocation as without reservations.
	 */
	if (my_rsv) {
		my_rsv = NULL;
		windowsz = 0;
		group_no = goal_group;
		goto retry_alloc;
	}
	/* No space left on the device */
	*errp = -ENOSPC;
	goto out;

allocated:

	ext3_debug("using block group %d(%d)\n",
			group_no, gdp->bg_free_blocks_count);

	BUFFER_TRACE(gdp_bh, "get_write_access");
	fatal = ext3_journal_get_write_access(handle, gdp_bh);
	if (fatal)
		goto out;

	ret_block = grp_alloc_blk + ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group_no);

	if (in_range(le32_to_cpu(gdp->bg_block_bitmap), ret_block, num) ||
	    in_range(le32_to_cpu(gdp->bg_inode_bitmap), ret_block, num) ||
	    in_range(ret_block, le32_to_cpu(gdp->bg_inode_table),
		      EXT3_SB(sb)->s_itb_per_group) ||
	    in_range(ret_block + num - 1, le32_to_cpu(gdp->bg_inode_table),
		      EXT3_SB(sb)->s_itb_per_group)) {
		ext3_error(sb, "ext3_new_block",
			    "Allocating block in system zone - "
			    "blocks from "E3FSBLK", length %lu",
			     ret_block, num);
		/*
		 * claim_block() marked the blocks we allocated as in use. So we
		 * may want to selectively mark some of the blocks as free.
		 */
		goto retry_alloc;
	}

	performed_allocation = 1;

#ifdef CONFIG_JBD_DEBUG
	{
		struct buffer_head *debug_bh;

		/* Record bitmap buffer state in the newly allocated block */
		debug_bh = sb_find_get_block(sb, ret_block);
		if (debug_bh) {
			BUFFER_TRACE(debug_bh, "state when allocated");
			BUFFER_TRACE2(debug_bh, bitmap_bh, "bitmap state");
			brelse(debug_bh);
		}
	}
	jbd_lock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
	spin_lock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group_no));
	if (buffer_jbd(bitmap_bh) && bh2jh(bitmap_bh)->b_committed_data) {
		int i;

		for (i = 0; i < num; i++) {
			if (ext3_test_bit(grp_alloc_blk+i,
					bh2jh(bitmap_bh)->b_committed_data)) {
				printk("%s: block was unexpectedly set in "
					"b_committed_data\n", __func__);
			}
		}
	}
	ext3_debug("found bit %d\n", grp_alloc_blk);
	spin_unlock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group_no));
	jbd_unlock_bh_state(bitmap_bh);
#endif

	if (ret_block + num - 1 >= le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count)) {
		ext3_error(sb, "ext3_new_block",
			    "block("E3FSBLK") >= blocks count(%d) - "
			    "block_group = %d, es == %p ", ret_block,
			le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count), group_no, es);
		goto out;
	}

	/*
	 * It is up to the caller to add the new buffer to a journal
	 * list of some description.  We don't know in advance whether
	 * the caller wants to use it as metadata or data.
	 */
	ext3_debug("allocating block %lu. Goal hits %d of %d.\n",
			ret_block, goal_hits, goal_attempts);

	spin_lock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group_no));
	le16_add_cpu(&gdp->bg_free_blocks_count, -num);
	spin_unlock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group_no));
	percpu_counter_sub(&sbi->s_freeblocks_counter, num);

	BUFFER_TRACE(gdp_bh, "journal_dirty_metadata for group descriptor");
	err = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, gdp_bh);
	if (!fatal)
		fatal = err;

	if (fatal)
		goto out;

	*errp = 0;
	brelse(bitmap_bh);

	if (num < *count) {
		dquot_free_block(inode, *count-num);
		*count = num;
	}

	trace_ext3_allocate_blocks(inode, goal, num,
				   (unsigned long long)ret_block);

	return ret_block;

io_error:
	*errp = -EIO;
out:
	if (fatal) {
		*errp = fatal;
		ext3_std_error(sb, fatal);
	}
	/*
	 * Undo the block allocation
	 */
	if (!performed_allocation)
		dquot_free_block(inode, *count);
	brelse(bitmap_bh);
	return 0;
}

ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_block(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
			ext3_fsblk_t goal, int *errp)
{
	unsigned long count = 1;

	return ext3_new_blocks(handle, inode, goal, &count, errp);
}

/**
 * ext3_count_free_blocks() -- count filesystem free blocks
 * @sb:		superblock
 *
 * Adds up the number of free blocks from each block group.
 */
ext3_fsblk_t ext3_count_free_blocks(struct super_block *sb)
{
	ext3_fsblk_t desc_count;
	struct ext3_group_desc *gdp;
	int i;
	unsigned long ngroups = EXT3_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
#ifdef EXT3FS_DEBUG
	struct ext3_super_block *es;
	ext3_fsblk_t bitmap_count;
	unsigned long x;
	struct buffer_head *bitmap_bh = NULL;

	es = EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es;
	desc_count = 0;
	bitmap_count = 0;
	gdp = NULL;

	smp_rmb();
	for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
		gdp = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
		if (!gdp)
			continue;
		desc_count += le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count);
		brelse(bitmap_bh);
		bitmap_bh = read_block_bitmap(sb, i);
		if (bitmap_bh == NULL)
			continue;

		x = ext3_count_free(bitmap_bh, sb->s_blocksize);
		printk("group %d: stored = %d, counted = %lu\n",
			i, le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count), x);
		bitmap_count += x;
	}
	brelse(bitmap_bh);
	printk("ext3_count_free_blocks: stored = "E3FSBLK
		", computed = "E3FSBLK", "E3FSBLK"\n",
	       (ext3_fsblk_t)le32_to_cpu(es->s_free_blocks_count),
		desc_count, bitmap_count);
	return bitmap_count;
#else
	desc_count = 0;
	smp_rmb();
	for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
		gdp = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, i, NULL);
		if (!gdp)
			continue;
		desc_count += le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count);
	}

	return desc_count;
#endif
}

static inline int test_root(int a, int b)
{
	int num = b;

	while (a > num)
		num *= b;
	return num == a;
}

static int ext3_group_sparse(int group)
{
	if (group <= 1)
		return 1;
	if (!(group & 1))
		return 0;
	return (test_root(group, 7) || test_root(group, 5) ||
		test_root(group, 3));
}

/**
 *	ext3_bg_has_super - number of blocks used by the superblock in group
 *	@sb: superblock for filesystem
 *	@group: group number to check
 *
 *	Return the number of blocks used by the superblock (primary or backup)
 *	in this group.  Currently this will be only 0 or 1.
 */
int ext3_bg_has_super(struct super_block *sb, int group)
{
	if (EXT3_HAS_RO_COMPAT_FEATURE(sb,
				EXT3_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_SPARSE_SUPER) &&
			!ext3_group_sparse(group))
		return 0;
	return 1;
}

static unsigned long ext3_bg_num_gdb_meta(struct super_block *sb, int group)
{
	unsigned long metagroup = group / EXT3_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb);
	unsigned long first = metagroup * EXT3_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb);
	unsigned long last = first + EXT3_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb) - 1;

	if (group == first || group == first + 1 || group == last)
		return 1;
	return 0;
}

static unsigned long ext3_bg_num_gdb_nometa(struct super_block *sb, int group)
{
	return ext3_bg_has_super(sb, group) ? EXT3_SB(sb)->s_gdb_count : 0;
}

/**
 *	ext3_bg_num_gdb - number of blocks used by the group table in group
 *	@sb: superblock for filesystem
 *	@group: group number to check
 *
 *	Return the number of blocks used by the group descriptor table
 *	(primary or backup) in this group.  In the future there may be a
 *	different number of descriptor blocks in each group.
 */
unsigned long ext3_bg_num_gdb(struct super_block *sb, int group)
{
	unsigned long first_meta_bg =
			le32_to_cpu(EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es->s_first_meta_bg);
	unsigned long metagroup = group / EXT3_DESC_PER_BLOCK(sb);

	if (!EXT3_HAS_INCOMPAT_FEATURE(sb,EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_META_BG) ||
			metagroup < first_meta_bg)
		return ext3_bg_num_gdb_nometa(sb,group);

	return ext3_bg_num_gdb_meta(sb,group);

}

/**
 * ext3_trim_all_free -- function to trim all free space in alloc. group
 * @sb:			super block for file system
 * @group:		allocation group to trim
 * @start:		first group block to examine
 * @max:		last group block to examine
 * @gdp:		allocation group description structure
 * @minblocks:		minimum extent block count
 *
 * ext3_trim_all_free walks through group's block bitmap searching for free
 * blocks. When the free block is found, it tries to allocate this block and
 * consequent free block to get the biggest free extent possible, until it
 * reaches any used block. Then issue a TRIM command on this extent and free
 * the extent in the block bitmap. This is done until whole group is scanned.
 */
static ext3_grpblk_t ext3_trim_all_free(struct super_block *sb,
					unsigned int group,
					ext3_grpblk_t start, ext3_grpblk_t max,
					ext3_grpblk_t minblocks)
{
	handle_t *handle;
	ext3_grpblk_t next, free_blocks, bit, freed, count = 0;
	ext3_fsblk_t discard_block;
	struct ext3_sb_info *sbi;
	struct buffer_head *gdp_bh, *bitmap_bh = NULL;
	struct ext3_group_desc *gdp;
	int err = 0, ret = 0;

	/*
	 * We will update one block bitmap, and one group descriptor
	 */
	handle = ext3_journal_start_sb(sb, 2);
	if (IS_ERR(handle))
		return PTR_ERR(handle);

	bitmap_bh = read_block_bitmap(sb, group);
	if (!bitmap_bh) {
		err = -EIO;
		goto err_out;
	}

	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "getting undo access");
	err = ext3_journal_get_undo_access(handle, bitmap_bh);
	if (err)
		goto err_out;

	gdp = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, group, &gdp_bh);
	if (!gdp) {
		err = -EIO;
		goto err_out;
	}

	BUFFER_TRACE(gdp_bh, "get_write_access");
	err = ext3_journal_get_write_access(handle, gdp_bh);
	if (err)
		goto err_out;

	free_blocks = le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count);
	sbi = EXT3_SB(sb);

	 /* Walk through the whole group */
	while (start <= max) {
		start = bitmap_search_next_usable_block(start, bitmap_bh, max);
		if (start < 0)
			break;
		next = start;

		/*
		 * Allocate contiguous free extents by setting bits in the
		 * block bitmap
		 */
		while (next <= max
			&& claim_block(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group),
					next, bitmap_bh)) {
			next++;
		}

		 /* We did not claim any blocks */
		if (next == start)
			continue;

		discard_block = (ext3_fsblk_t)start +
				ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group);

		/* Update counters */
		spin_lock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group));
		le16_add_cpu(&gdp->bg_free_blocks_count, start - next);
		spin_unlock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group));
		percpu_counter_sub(&sbi->s_freeblocks_counter, next - start);

		free_blocks -= next - start;
		/* Do not issue a TRIM on extents smaller than minblocks */
		if ((next - start) < minblocks)
			goto free_extent;

		trace_ext3_discard_blocks(sb, discard_block, next - start);
		 /* Send the TRIM command down to the device */
		err = sb_issue_discard(sb, discard_block, next - start,
				       GFP_NOFS, 0);
		count += (next - start);
free_extent:
		freed = 0;

		/*
		 * Clear bits in the bitmap
		 */
		for (bit = start; bit < next; bit++) {
			BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "clear bit");
			if (!ext3_clear_bit_atomic(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group),
						bit, bitmap_bh->b_data)) {
				ext3_error(sb, __func__,
					"bit already cleared for block "E3FSBLK,
					 (unsigned long)bit);
				BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "bit already cleared");
			} else {
				freed++;
			}
		}

		/* Update couters */
		spin_lock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group));
		le16_add_cpu(&gdp->bg_free_blocks_count, freed);
		spin_unlock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group));
		percpu_counter_add(&sbi->s_freeblocks_counter, freed);

		start = next;
		if (err < 0) {
			if (err != -EOPNOTSUPP)
				ext3_warning(sb, __func__, "Discard command "
					     "returned error %d\n", err);
			break;
		}

		if (fatal_signal_pending(current)) {
			err = -ERESTARTSYS;
			break;
		}

		cond_resched();

		/* No more suitable extents */
		if (free_blocks < minblocks)
			break;
	}

	/* We dirtied the bitmap block */
	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "dirtied bitmap block");
	ret = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, bitmap_bh);
	if (!err)
		err = ret;

	/* And the group descriptor block */
	BUFFER_TRACE(gdp_bh, "dirtied group descriptor block");
	ret = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, gdp_bh);
	if (!err)
		err = ret;

	ext3_debug("trimmed %d blocks in the group %d\n",
		count, group);

err_out:
	if (err)
		count = err;
	ext3_journal_stop(handle);
	brelse(bitmap_bh);

	return count;
}

/**
 * ext3_trim_fs() -- trim ioctl handle function
 * @sb:			superblock for filesystem
 * @start:		First Byte to trim
 * @len:		number of Bytes to trim from start
 * @minlen:		minimum extent length in Bytes
 *
 * ext3_trim_fs goes through all allocation groups containing Bytes from
 * start to start+len. For each such a group ext3_trim_all_free function
 * is invoked to trim all free space.
 */
int ext3_trim_fs(struct super_block *sb, struct fstrim_range *range)
{
	ext3_grpblk_t last_block, first_block;
	unsigned long group, first_group, last_group;
	struct ext3_group_desc *gdp;
	struct ext3_super_block *es = EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es;
	uint64_t start, minlen, end, trimmed = 0;
	ext3_fsblk_t first_data_blk =
			le32_to_cpu(EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es->s_first_data_block);
	ext3_fsblk_t max_blks = le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count);
	int ret = 0;

	start = range->start >> sb->s_blocksize_bits;
	end = start + (range->len >> sb->s_blocksize_bits) - 1;
	minlen = range->minlen >> sb->s_blocksize_bits;

	if (minlen > EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) ||
	    start >= max_blks ||
	    range->len < sb->s_blocksize)
		return -EINVAL;
	if (end >= max_blks)
		end = max_blks - 1;
	if (end <= first_data_blk)
		goto out;
	if (start < first_data_blk)
		start = first_data_blk;

	smp_rmb();

	/* Determine first and last group to examine based on start and len */
	ext3_get_group_no_and_offset(sb, (ext3_fsblk_t) start,
				     &first_group, &first_block);
	ext3_get_group_no_and_offset(sb, (ext3_fsblk_t) end,
				     &last_group, &last_block);

	/* end now represents the last block to discard in this group */
	end = EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) - 1;

	for (group = first_group; group <= last_group; group++) {
		gdp = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, group, NULL);
		if (!gdp)
			break;

		/*
		 * For all the groups except the last one, last block will
		 * always be EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb)-1, so we only need to
		 * change it for the last group, note that last_block is
		 * already computed earlier by ext3_get_group_no_and_offset()
		 */
		if (group == last_group)
			end = last_block;

		if (le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count) >= minlen) {
			ret = ext3_trim_all_free(sb, group, first_block,
						 end, minlen);
			if (ret < 0)
				break;
			trimmed += ret;
		}

		/*
		 * For every group except the first one, we are sure
		 * that the first block to discard will be block #0.
		 */
		first_block = 0;
	}

	if (ret > 0)
		ret = 0;

out:
	range->len = trimmed * sb->s_blocksize;
	return ret;
}