2020 internships

U-Boot, Linux, Elixir

2020 internships

U-Boot, Linux, Elixir

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Elixir Cross Referencer

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/*
 *  linux/arch/x86-64/kernel/setup.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1995  Linus Torvalds
 *
 *  Nov 2001 Dave Jones <davej@suse.de>
 *  Forked from i386 setup code.
 *
 *  $Id$
 */

/*
 * This file handles the architecture-dependent parts of initialization
 */

#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/stddef.h>
#include <linux/unistd.h>
#include <linux/ptrace.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/user.h>
#include <linux/a.out.h>
#include <linux/tty.h>
#include <linux/ioport.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/config.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/initrd.h>
#include <linux/highmem.h>
#include <linux/bootmem.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <asm/processor.h>
#include <linux/console.h>
#include <linux/seq_file.h>
#include <linux/crash_dump.h>
#include <linux/root_dev.h>
#include <linux/pci.h>
#include <linux/acpi.h>
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
#include <linux/edd.h>
#include <linux/mmzone.h>
#include <linux/kexec.h>
#include <linux/cpufreq.h>
#include <linux/dmi.h>
#include <linux/dma-mapping.h>

#include <asm/mtrr.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/system.h>
#include <asm/io.h>
#include <asm/smp.h>
#include <asm/msr.h>
#include <asm/desc.h>
#include <video/edid.h>
#include <asm/e820.h>
#include <asm/dma.h>
#include <asm/mpspec.h>
#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
#include <asm/bootsetup.h>
#include <asm/proto.h>
#include <asm/setup.h>
#include <asm/mach_apic.h>
#include <asm/numa.h>
#include <asm/swiotlb.h>
#include <asm/sections.h>
#include <asm/gart-mapping.h>

/*
 * Machine setup..
 */

struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data __read_mostly;

unsigned long mmu_cr4_features;

int acpi_disabled;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(acpi_disabled);
#ifdef	CONFIG_ACPI
extern int __initdata acpi_ht;
extern acpi_interrupt_flags	acpi_sci_flags;
int __initdata acpi_force = 0;
#endif

int acpi_numa __initdata;

/* Boot loader ID as an integer, for the benefit of proc_dointvec */
int bootloader_type;

unsigned long saved_video_mode;

/*
 * Setup options
 */
struct screen_info screen_info;
struct sys_desc_table_struct {
	unsigned short length;
	unsigned char table[0];
};

struct edid_info edid_info;
struct e820map e820;

extern int root_mountflags;

char command_line[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];

struct resource standard_io_resources[] = {
	{ .name = "dma1", .start = 0x00, .end = 0x1f,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "pic1", .start = 0x20, .end = 0x21,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "timer0", .start = 0x40, .end = 0x43,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "timer1", .start = 0x50, .end = 0x53,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "keyboard", .start = 0x60, .end = 0x6f,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "dma page reg", .start = 0x80, .end = 0x8f,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "pic2", .start = 0xa0, .end = 0xa1,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "dma2", .start = 0xc0, .end = 0xdf,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
	{ .name = "fpu", .start = 0xf0, .end = 0xff,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO }
};

#define STANDARD_IO_RESOURCES \
	(sizeof standard_io_resources / sizeof standard_io_resources[0])

#define IORESOURCE_RAM (IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM)

struct resource data_resource = {
	.name = "Kernel data",
	.start = 0,
	.end = 0,
	.flags = IORESOURCE_RAM,
};
struct resource code_resource = {
	.name = "Kernel code",
	.start = 0,
	.end = 0,
	.flags = IORESOURCE_RAM,
};

#define IORESOURCE_ROM (IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_READONLY | IORESOURCE_MEM)

static struct resource system_rom_resource = {
	.name = "System ROM",
	.start = 0xf0000,
	.end = 0xfffff,
	.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM,
};

static struct resource extension_rom_resource = {
	.name = "Extension ROM",
	.start = 0xe0000,
	.end = 0xeffff,
	.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM,
};

static struct resource adapter_rom_resources[] = {
	{ .name = "Adapter ROM", .start = 0xc8000, .end = 0,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM },
	{ .name = "Adapter ROM", .start = 0, .end = 0,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM },
	{ .name = "Adapter ROM", .start = 0, .end = 0,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM },
	{ .name = "Adapter ROM", .start = 0, .end = 0,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM },
	{ .name = "Adapter ROM", .start = 0, .end = 0,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM },
	{ .name = "Adapter ROM", .start = 0, .end = 0,
		.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM }
};

#define ADAPTER_ROM_RESOURCES \
	(sizeof adapter_rom_resources / sizeof adapter_rom_resources[0])

static struct resource video_rom_resource = {
	.name = "Video ROM",
	.start = 0xc0000,
	.end = 0xc7fff,
	.flags = IORESOURCE_ROM,
};

static struct resource video_ram_resource = {
	.name = "Video RAM area",
	.start = 0xa0000,
	.end = 0xbffff,
	.flags = IORESOURCE_RAM,
};

#define romsignature(x) (*(unsigned short *)(x) == 0xaa55)

static int __init romchecksum(unsigned char *rom, unsigned long length)
{
	unsigned char *p, sum = 0;

	for (p = rom; p < rom + length; p++)
		sum += *p;
	return sum == 0;
}

static void __init probe_roms(void)
{
	unsigned long start, length, upper;
	unsigned char *rom;
	int	      i;

	/* video rom */
	upper = adapter_rom_resources[0].start;
	for (start = video_rom_resource.start; start < upper; start += 2048) {
		rom = isa_bus_to_virt(start);
		if (!romsignature(rom))
			continue;

		video_rom_resource.start = start;

		/* 0 < length <= 0x7f * 512, historically */
		length = rom[2] * 512;

		/* if checksum okay, trust length byte */
		if (length && romchecksum(rom, length))
			video_rom_resource.end = start + length - 1;

		request_resource(&iomem_resource, &video_rom_resource);
		break;
			}

	start = (video_rom_resource.end + 1 + 2047) & ~2047UL;
	if (start < upper)
		start = upper;

	/* system rom */
	request_resource(&iomem_resource, &system_rom_resource);
	upper = system_rom_resource.start;

	/* check for extension rom (ignore length byte!) */
	rom = isa_bus_to_virt(extension_rom_resource.start);
	if (romsignature(rom)) {
		length = extension_rom_resource.end - extension_rom_resource.start + 1;
		if (romchecksum(rom, length)) {
			request_resource(&iomem_resource, &extension_rom_resource);
			upper = extension_rom_resource.start;
		}
	}

	/* check for adapter roms on 2k boundaries */
	for (i = 0; i < ADAPTER_ROM_RESOURCES && start < upper; start += 2048) {
		rom = isa_bus_to_virt(start);
		if (!romsignature(rom))
			continue;

		/* 0 < length <= 0x7f * 512, historically */
		length = rom[2] * 512;

		/* but accept any length that fits if checksum okay */
		if (!length || start + length > upper || !romchecksum(rom, length))
			continue;

		adapter_rom_resources[i].start = start;
		adapter_rom_resources[i].end = start + length - 1;
		request_resource(&iomem_resource, &adapter_rom_resources[i]);

		start = adapter_rom_resources[i++].end & ~2047UL;
	}
}

static __init void parse_cmdline_early (char ** cmdline_p)
{
	char c = ' ', *to = command_line, *from = COMMAND_LINE;
	int len = 0;
	int userdef = 0;

	for (;;) {
		if (c != ' ') 
			goto next_char; 

#ifdef  CONFIG_SMP
		/*
		 * If the BIOS enumerates physical processors before logical,
		 * maxcpus=N at enumeration-time can be used to disable HT.
		 */
		else if (!memcmp(from, "maxcpus=", 8)) {
			extern unsigned int maxcpus;

			maxcpus = simple_strtoul(from + 8, NULL, 0);
		}
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_ACPI
		/* "acpi=off" disables both ACPI table parsing and interpreter init */
		if (!memcmp(from, "acpi=off", 8))
			disable_acpi();

		if (!memcmp(from, "acpi=force", 10)) { 
			/* add later when we do DMI horrors: */
			acpi_force = 1;
			acpi_disabled = 0;
		}

		/* acpi=ht just means: do ACPI MADT parsing 
		   at bootup, but don't enable the full ACPI interpreter */
		if (!memcmp(from, "acpi=ht", 7)) { 
			if (!acpi_force)
				disable_acpi();
			acpi_ht = 1; 
		}
                else if (!memcmp(from, "pci=noacpi", 10)) 
			acpi_disable_pci();
		else if (!memcmp(from, "acpi=noirq", 10))
			acpi_noirq_set();

		else if (!memcmp(from, "acpi_sci=edge", 13))
			acpi_sci_flags.trigger =  1;
		else if (!memcmp(from, "acpi_sci=level", 14))
			acpi_sci_flags.trigger = 3;
		else if (!memcmp(from, "acpi_sci=high", 13))
			acpi_sci_flags.polarity = 1;
		else if (!memcmp(from, "acpi_sci=low", 12))
			acpi_sci_flags.polarity = 3;

		/* acpi=strict disables out-of-spec workarounds */
		else if (!memcmp(from, "acpi=strict", 11)) {
			acpi_strict = 1;
		}
#ifdef CONFIG_X86_IO_APIC
		else if (!memcmp(from, "acpi_skip_timer_override", 24))
			acpi_skip_timer_override = 1;
#endif
#endif

		if (!memcmp(from, "disable_timer_pin_1", 19))
			disable_timer_pin_1 = 1;
		if (!memcmp(from, "enable_timer_pin_1", 18))
			disable_timer_pin_1 = -1;

		if (!memcmp(from, "nolapic", 7) ||
		    !memcmp(from, "disableapic", 11))
			disable_apic = 1;

		/* Don't confuse with noapictimer */
		if (!memcmp(from, "noapic", 6) &&
			(from[6] == ' ' || from[6] == 0))
			skip_ioapic_setup = 1;

		/* Make sure to not confuse with apic= */
		if (!memcmp(from, "apic", 4) &&
			(from[4] == ' ' || from[4] == 0)) {
			skip_ioapic_setup = 0;
			ioapic_force = 1;
		}
			
		if (!memcmp(from, "mem=", 4))
			parse_memopt(from+4, &from); 

		if (!memcmp(from, "memmap=", 7)) {
			/* exactmap option is for used defined memory */
			if (!memcmp(from+7, "exactmap", 8)) {
#ifdef CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP
				/* If we are doing a crash dump, we
				 * still need to know the real mem
				 * size before original memory map is
				 * reset.
				 */
				saved_max_pfn = e820_end_of_ram();
#endif
				from += 8+7;
				end_pfn_map = 0;
				e820.nr_map = 0;
				userdef = 1;
			}
			else {
				parse_memmapopt(from+7, &from);
				userdef = 1;
			}
		}

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
		if (!memcmp(from, "numa=", 5))
			numa_setup(from+5); 
#endif

		if (!memcmp(from,"iommu=",6)) { 
			iommu_setup(from+6); 
		}

		if (!memcmp(from,"oops=panic", 10))
			panic_on_oops = 1;

		if (!memcmp(from, "noexec=", 7))
			nonx_setup(from + 7);

#ifdef CONFIG_KEXEC
		/* crashkernel=size@addr specifies the location to reserve for
		 * a crash kernel.  By reserving this memory we guarantee
		 * that linux never set's it up as a DMA target.
		 * Useful for holding code to do something appropriate
		 * after a kernel panic.
		 */
		else if (!memcmp(from, "crashkernel=", 12)) {
			unsigned long size, base;
			size = memparse(from+12, &from);
			if (*from == '@') {
				base = memparse(from+1, &from);
				/* FIXME: Do I want a sanity check
				 * to validate the memory range?
				 */
				crashk_res.start = base;
				crashk_res.end   = base + size - 1;
			}
		}
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_VMCORE
		/* elfcorehdr= specifies the location of elf core header
		 * stored by the crashed kernel. This option will be passed
		 * by kexec loader to the capture kernel.
		 */
		else if(!memcmp(from, "elfcorehdr=", 11))
			elfcorehdr_addr = memparse(from+11, &from);
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
		else if (!memcmp(from, "additional_cpus=", 16))
			setup_additional_cpus(from+16);
#endif

	next_char:
		c = *(from++);
		if (!c)
			break;
		if (COMMAND_LINE_SIZE <= ++len)
			break;
		*(to++) = c;
	}
	if (userdef) {
		printk(KERN_INFO "user-defined physical RAM map:\n");
		e820_print_map("user");
	}
	*to = '\0';
	*cmdline_p = command_line;
}

#ifndef CONFIG_NUMA
static void __init
contig_initmem_init(unsigned long start_pfn, unsigned long end_pfn)
{
	unsigned long bootmap_size, bootmap;

	bootmap_size = bootmem_bootmap_pages(end_pfn)<<PAGE_SHIFT;
	bootmap = find_e820_area(0, end_pfn<<PAGE_SHIFT, bootmap_size);
	if (bootmap == -1L)
		panic("Cannot find bootmem map of size %ld\n",bootmap_size);
	bootmap_size = init_bootmem(bootmap >> PAGE_SHIFT, end_pfn);
	e820_bootmem_free(NODE_DATA(0), 0, end_pfn << PAGE_SHIFT);
	reserve_bootmem(bootmap, bootmap_size);
} 
#endif

/* Use inline assembly to define this because the nops are defined 
   as inline assembly strings in the include files and we cannot 
   get them easily into strings. */
asm("\t.data\nk8nops: " 
    K8_NOP1 K8_NOP2 K8_NOP3 K8_NOP4 K8_NOP5 K8_NOP6
    K8_NOP7 K8_NOP8); 
    
extern unsigned char k8nops[];
static unsigned char *k8_nops[ASM_NOP_MAX+1] = { 
     NULL,
     k8nops,
     k8nops + 1,
     k8nops + 1 + 2,
     k8nops + 1 + 2 + 3,
     k8nops + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4,
     k8nops + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5,
     k8nops + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6,
     k8nops + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7,
}; 

extern char __vsyscall_0;

/* Replace instructions with better alternatives for this CPU type.

   This runs before SMP is initialized to avoid SMP problems with
   self modifying code. This implies that assymetric systems where
   APs have less capabilities than the boot processor are not handled. 
   In this case boot with "noreplacement". */ 
void apply_alternatives(void *start, void *end) 
{ 
	struct alt_instr *a; 
	int diff, i, k;
	for (a = start; (void *)a < end; a++) { 
		u8 *instr;

		if (!boot_cpu_has(a->cpuid))
			continue;

		BUG_ON(a->replacementlen > a->instrlen); 
		instr = a->instr;
		/* vsyscall code is not mapped yet. resolve it manually. */
		if (instr >= (u8 *)VSYSCALL_START && instr < (u8*)VSYSCALL_END)
			instr = __va(instr - (u8*)VSYSCALL_START + (u8*)__pa_symbol(&__vsyscall_0));
		__inline_memcpy(instr, a->replacement, a->replacementlen);
		diff = a->instrlen - a->replacementlen; 

		/* Pad the rest with nops */
		for (i = a->replacementlen; diff > 0; diff -= k, i += k) {
			k = diff;
			if (k > ASM_NOP_MAX)
				k = ASM_NOP_MAX;
			__inline_memcpy(instr + i, k8_nops[k], k);
		} 
	}
} 

static int no_replacement __initdata = 0; 
 
void __init alternative_instructions(void)
{
	extern struct alt_instr __alt_instructions[], __alt_instructions_end[];
	if (no_replacement) 
		return;
	apply_alternatives(__alt_instructions, __alt_instructions_end);
}

static int __init noreplacement_setup(char *s)
{ 
     no_replacement = 1; 
     return 0; 
} 

__setup("noreplacement", noreplacement_setup); 

#if defined(CONFIG_EDD) || defined(CONFIG_EDD_MODULE)
struct edd edd;
#ifdef CONFIG_EDD_MODULE
EXPORT_SYMBOL(edd);
#endif
/**
 * copy_edd() - Copy the BIOS EDD information
 *              from boot_params into a safe place.
 *
 */
static inline void copy_edd(void)
{
     memcpy(edd.mbr_signature, EDD_MBR_SIGNATURE, sizeof(edd.mbr_signature));
     memcpy(edd.edd_info, EDD_BUF, sizeof(edd.edd_info));
     edd.mbr_signature_nr = EDD_MBR_SIG_NR;
     edd.edd_info_nr = EDD_NR;
}
#else
static inline void copy_edd(void)
{
}
#endif

#define EBDA_ADDR_POINTER 0x40E
static void __init reserve_ebda_region(void)
{
	unsigned int addr;
	/** 
	 * there is a real-mode segmented pointer pointing to the 
	 * 4K EBDA area at 0x40E
	 */
	addr = *(unsigned short *)phys_to_virt(EBDA_ADDR_POINTER);
	addr <<= 4;
	if (addr)
		reserve_bootmem_generic(addr, PAGE_SIZE);
}

void __init setup_arch(char **cmdline_p)
{
	unsigned long kernel_end;

 	ROOT_DEV = old_decode_dev(ORIG_ROOT_DEV);
 	screen_info = SCREEN_INFO;
	edid_info = EDID_INFO;
	saved_video_mode = SAVED_VIDEO_MODE;
	bootloader_type = LOADER_TYPE;

#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
	rd_image_start = RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
	rd_prompt = ((RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
	rd_doload = ((RAMDISK_FLAGS & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);
#endif
	setup_memory_region();
	copy_edd();

	if (!MOUNT_ROOT_RDONLY)
		root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
	init_mm.start_code = (unsigned long) &_text;
	init_mm.end_code = (unsigned long) &_etext;
	init_mm.end_data = (unsigned long) &_edata;
	init_mm.brk = (unsigned long) &_end;

	code_resource.start = virt_to_phys(&_text);
	code_resource.end = virt_to_phys(&_etext)-1;
	data_resource.start = virt_to_phys(&_etext);
	data_resource.end = virt_to_phys(&_edata)-1;

	parse_cmdline_early(cmdline_p);

	early_identify_cpu(&boot_cpu_data);

	/*
	 * partially used pages are not usable - thus
	 * we are rounding upwards:
	 */
	end_pfn = e820_end_of_ram();

	check_efer();

	init_memory_mapping(0, (end_pfn_map << PAGE_SHIFT));

	zap_low_mappings(0);

#ifdef CONFIG_ACPI
	/*
	 * Initialize the ACPI boot-time table parser (gets the RSDP and SDT).
	 * Call this early for SRAT node setup.
	 */
	acpi_boot_table_init();
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_ACPI_NUMA
	/*
	 * Parse SRAT to discover nodes.
	 */
	acpi_numa_init();
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	numa_initmem_init(0, end_pfn); 
#else
	contig_initmem_init(0, end_pfn);
#endif

	/* Reserve direct mapping */
	reserve_bootmem_generic(table_start << PAGE_SHIFT, 
				(table_end - table_start) << PAGE_SHIFT);

	/* reserve kernel */
	kernel_end = round_up(__pa_symbol(&_end),PAGE_SIZE);
	reserve_bootmem_generic(HIGH_MEMORY, kernel_end - HIGH_MEMORY);

	/*
	 * reserve physical page 0 - it's a special BIOS page on many boxes,
	 * enabling clean reboots, SMP operation, laptop functions.
	 */
	reserve_bootmem_generic(0, PAGE_SIZE);

	/* reserve ebda region */
	reserve_ebda_region();

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	/*
	 * But first pinch a few for the stack/trampoline stuff
	 * FIXME: Don't need the extra page at 4K, but need to fix
	 * trampoline before removing it. (see the GDT stuff)
	 */
	reserve_bootmem_generic(PAGE_SIZE, PAGE_SIZE);

	/* Reserve SMP trampoline */
	reserve_bootmem_generic(SMP_TRAMPOLINE_BASE, PAGE_SIZE);
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_ACPI_SLEEP
       /*
        * Reserve low memory region for sleep support.
        */
       acpi_reserve_bootmem();
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
	/*
	 * Find and reserve possible boot-time SMP configuration:
	 */
	find_smp_config();
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
	if (LOADER_TYPE && INITRD_START) {
		if (INITRD_START + INITRD_SIZE <= (end_pfn << PAGE_SHIFT)) {
			reserve_bootmem_generic(INITRD_START, INITRD_SIZE);
			initrd_start =
				INITRD_START ? INITRD_START + PAGE_OFFSET : 0;
			initrd_end = initrd_start+INITRD_SIZE;
		}
		else {
			printk(KERN_ERR "initrd extends beyond end of memory "
			    "(0x%08lx > 0x%08lx)\ndisabling initrd\n",
			    (unsigned long)(INITRD_START + INITRD_SIZE),
			    (unsigned long)(end_pfn << PAGE_SHIFT));
			initrd_start = 0;
		}
	}
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_KEXEC
	if (crashk_res.start != crashk_res.end) {
		reserve_bootmem(crashk_res.start,
			crashk_res.end - crashk_res.start + 1);
	}
#endif

	paging_init();

	check_ioapic();

#ifdef CONFIG_ACPI
	/*
	 * Read APIC and some other early information from ACPI tables.
	 */
	acpi_boot_init();
#endif

	init_cpu_to_node();

#ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
	/*
	 * get boot-time SMP configuration:
	 */
	if (smp_found_config)
		get_smp_config();
	init_apic_mappings();
#endif

	/*
	 * Request address space for all standard RAM and ROM resources
	 * and also for regions reported as reserved by the e820.
	 */
	probe_roms();
	e820_reserve_resources(); 

	request_resource(&iomem_resource, &video_ram_resource);

	{
	unsigned i;
	/* request I/O space for devices used on all i[345]86 PCs */
	for (i = 0; i < STANDARD_IO_RESOURCES; i++)
		request_resource(&ioport_resource, &standard_io_resources[i]);
	}

	e820_setup_gap();

#ifdef CONFIG_GART_IOMMU
	iommu_hole_init();
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_VT
#if defined(CONFIG_VGA_CONSOLE)
	conswitchp = &vga_con;
#elif defined(CONFIG_DUMMY_CONSOLE)
	conswitchp = &dummy_con;
#endif
#endif
}

static int __cpuinit get_model_name(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	unsigned int *v;

	if (c->extended_cpuid_level < 0x80000004)
		return 0;

	v = (unsigned int *) c->x86_model_id;
	cpuid(0x80000002, &v[0], &v[1], &v[2], &v[3]);
	cpuid(0x80000003, &v[4], &v[5], &v[6], &v[7]);
	cpuid(0x80000004, &v[8], &v[9], &v[10], &v[11]);
	c->x86_model_id[48] = 0;
	return 1;
}


static void __cpuinit display_cacheinfo(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	unsigned int n, dummy, eax, ebx, ecx, edx;

	n = c->extended_cpuid_level;

	if (n >= 0x80000005) {
		cpuid(0x80000005, &dummy, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
		printk(KERN_INFO "CPU: L1 I Cache: %dK (%d bytes/line), D cache %dK (%d bytes/line)\n",
			edx>>24, edx&0xFF, ecx>>24, ecx&0xFF);
		c->x86_cache_size=(ecx>>24)+(edx>>24);
		/* On K8 L1 TLB is inclusive, so don't count it */
		c->x86_tlbsize = 0;
	}

	if (n >= 0x80000006) {
		cpuid(0x80000006, &dummy, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
		ecx = cpuid_ecx(0x80000006);
		c->x86_cache_size = ecx >> 16;
		c->x86_tlbsize += ((ebx >> 16) & 0xfff) + (ebx & 0xfff);

		printk(KERN_INFO "CPU: L2 Cache: %dK (%d bytes/line)\n",
		c->x86_cache_size, ecx & 0xFF);
	}

	if (n >= 0x80000007)
		cpuid(0x80000007, &dummy, &dummy, &dummy, &c->x86_power); 
	if (n >= 0x80000008) {
		cpuid(0x80000008, &eax, &dummy, &dummy, &dummy); 
		c->x86_virt_bits = (eax >> 8) & 0xff;
		c->x86_phys_bits = eax & 0xff;
	}
}

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
static int nearby_node(int apicid)
{
	int i;
	for (i = apicid - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
		int node = apicid_to_node[i];
		if (node != NUMA_NO_NODE && node_online(node))
			return node;
	}
	for (i = apicid + 1; i < MAX_LOCAL_APIC; i++) {
		int node = apicid_to_node[i];
		if (node != NUMA_NO_NODE && node_online(node))
			return node;
	}
	return first_node(node_online_map); /* Shouldn't happen */
}
#endif

/*
 * On a AMD dual core setup the lower bits of the APIC id distingush the cores.
 * Assumes number of cores is a power of two.
 */
static void __init amd_detect_cmp(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	int cpu = smp_processor_id();
	unsigned bits;
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	int node = 0;
	unsigned apicid = phys_proc_id[cpu];
#endif

	bits = 0;
	while ((1 << bits) < c->x86_max_cores)
		bits++;

	/* Low order bits define the core id (index of core in socket) */
	cpu_core_id[cpu] = phys_proc_id[cpu] & ((1 << bits)-1);
	/* Convert the APIC ID into the socket ID */
	phys_proc_id[cpu] >>= bits;

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
  	node = phys_proc_id[cpu];
 	if (apicid_to_node[apicid] != NUMA_NO_NODE)
 		node = apicid_to_node[apicid];
 	if (!node_online(node)) {
 		/* Two possibilities here:
 		   - The CPU is missing memory and no node was created.
 		   In that case try picking one from a nearby CPU
 		   - The APIC IDs differ from the HyperTransport node IDs
 		   which the K8 northbridge parsing fills in.
 		   Assume they are all increased by a constant offset,
 		   but in the same order as the HT nodeids.
 		   If that doesn't result in a usable node fall back to the
 		   path for the previous case.  */
 		int ht_nodeid = apicid - (phys_proc_id[0] << bits);
 		if (ht_nodeid >= 0 &&
 		    apicid_to_node[ht_nodeid] != NUMA_NO_NODE)
 			node = apicid_to_node[ht_nodeid];
 		/* Pick a nearby node */
 		if (!node_online(node))
 			node = nearby_node(apicid);
 	}
	numa_set_node(cpu, node);

  	printk(KERN_INFO "CPU %d(%d) -> Node %d -> Core %d\n",
  			cpu, c->x86_max_cores, node, cpu_core_id[cpu]);
#endif
#endif
}

static int __init init_amd(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	int r;
	unsigned level;

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	unsigned long value;

	/*
	 * Disable TLB flush filter by setting HWCR.FFDIS on K8
	 * bit 6 of msr C001_0015
 	 *
	 * Errata 63 for SH-B3 steppings
	 * Errata 122 for all steppings (F+ have it disabled by default)
	 */
	if (c->x86 == 15) {
		rdmsrl(MSR_K8_HWCR, value);
		value |= 1 << 6;
		wrmsrl(MSR_K8_HWCR, value);
	}
#endif

	/* Bit 31 in normal CPUID used for nonstandard 3DNow ID;
	   3DNow is IDd by bit 31 in extended CPUID (1*32+31) anyway */
	clear_bit(0*32+31, &c->x86_capability);
	
	/* On C+ stepping K8 rep microcode works well for copy/memset */
	level = cpuid_eax(1);
	if (c->x86 == 15 && ((level >= 0x0f48 && level < 0x0f50) || level >= 0x0f58))
		set_bit(X86_FEATURE_REP_GOOD, &c->x86_capability);

	/* Enable workaround for FXSAVE leak */
	if (c->x86 >= 6)
		set_bit(X86_FEATURE_FXSAVE_LEAK, &c->x86_capability);

	r = get_model_name(c);
	if (!r) { 
		switch (c->x86) { 
		case 15:
			/* Should distinguish Models here, but this is only
			   a fallback anyways. */
			strcpy(c->x86_model_id, "Hammer");
			break; 
		} 
	} 
	display_cacheinfo(c);

	/* c->x86_power is 8000_0007 edx. Bit 8 is constant TSC */
	if (c->x86_power & (1<<8))
		set_bit(X86_FEATURE_CONSTANT_TSC, &c->x86_capability);

	if (c->extended_cpuid_level >= 0x80000008) {
		c->x86_max_cores = (cpuid_ecx(0x80000008) & 0xff) + 1;
		if (c->x86_max_cores & (c->x86_max_cores - 1))
			c->x86_max_cores = 1;

		amd_detect_cmp(c);
	}

	return r;
}

static void __cpuinit detect_ht(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	u32 	eax, ebx, ecx, edx;
	int 	index_msb, core_bits;
	int 	cpu = smp_processor_id();

	cpuid(1, &eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);

	c->apicid = phys_pkg_id(0);

	if (!cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_HT) || cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_CMP_LEGACY))
		return;

	smp_num_siblings = (ebx & 0xff0000) >> 16;

	if (smp_num_siblings == 1) {
		printk(KERN_INFO  "CPU: Hyper-Threading is disabled\n");
	} else if (smp_num_siblings > 1 ) {

		if (smp_num_siblings > NR_CPUS) {
			printk(KERN_WARNING "CPU: Unsupported number of the siblings %d", smp_num_siblings);
			smp_num_siblings = 1;
			return;
		}

		index_msb = get_count_order(smp_num_siblings);
		phys_proc_id[cpu] = phys_pkg_id(index_msb);

		printk(KERN_INFO  "CPU: Physical Processor ID: %d\n",
		       phys_proc_id[cpu]);

		smp_num_siblings = smp_num_siblings / c->x86_max_cores;

		index_msb = get_count_order(smp_num_siblings) ;

		core_bits = get_count_order(c->x86_max_cores);

		cpu_core_id[cpu] = phys_pkg_id(index_msb) &
					       ((1 << core_bits) - 1);

		if (c->x86_max_cores > 1)
			printk(KERN_INFO  "CPU: Processor Core ID: %d\n",
			       cpu_core_id[cpu]);
	}
#endif
}

/*
 * find out the number of processor cores on the die
 */
static int __cpuinit intel_num_cpu_cores(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	unsigned int eax;

	if (c->cpuid_level < 4)
		return 1;

	__asm__("cpuid"
		: "=a" (eax)
		: "0" (4), "c" (0)
		: "bx", "dx");

	if (eax & 0x1f)
		return ((eax >> 26) + 1);
	else
		return 1;
}

static void srat_detect_node(void)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	unsigned node;
	int cpu = smp_processor_id();

	/* Don't do the funky fallback heuristics the AMD version employs
	   for now. */
	node = apicid_to_node[hard_smp_processor_id()];
	if (node == NUMA_NO_NODE)
		node = 0;
	numa_set_node(cpu, node);

	if (acpi_numa > 0)
		printk(KERN_INFO "CPU %d -> Node %d\n", cpu, node);
#endif
}

static void __cpuinit init_intel(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	/* Cache sizes */
	unsigned n;

	init_intel_cacheinfo(c);
	n = c->extended_cpuid_level;
	if (n >= 0x80000008) {
		unsigned eax = cpuid_eax(0x80000008);
		c->x86_virt_bits = (eax >> 8) & 0xff;
		c->x86_phys_bits = eax & 0xff;
		/* CPUID workaround for Intel 0F34 CPU */
		if (c->x86_vendor == X86_VENDOR_INTEL &&
		    c->x86 == 0xF && c->x86_model == 0x3 &&
		    c->x86_mask == 0x4)
			c->x86_phys_bits = 36;
	}

	if (c->x86 == 15)
		c->x86_cache_alignment = c->x86_clflush_size * 2;
	if ((c->x86 == 0xf && c->x86_model >= 0x03) ||
	    (c->x86 == 0x6 && c->x86_model >= 0x0e))
		set_bit(X86_FEATURE_CONSTANT_TSC, &c->x86_capability);
	if (c->x86 == 15)
		set_bit(X86_FEATURE_SYNC_RDTSC, &c->x86_capability);
	else
		clear_bit(X86_FEATURE_SYNC_RDTSC, &c->x86_capability);
 	c->x86_max_cores = intel_num_cpu_cores(c);

	srat_detect_node();
}

static void __cpuinit get_cpu_vendor(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	char *v = c->x86_vendor_id;

	if (!strcmp(v, "AuthenticAMD"))
		c->x86_vendor = X86_VENDOR_AMD;
	else if (!strcmp(v, "GenuineIntel"))
		c->x86_vendor = X86_VENDOR_INTEL;
	else
		c->x86_vendor = X86_VENDOR_UNKNOWN;
}

struct cpu_model_info {
	int vendor;
	int family;
	char *model_names[16];
};

/* Do some early cpuid on the boot CPU to get some parameter that are
   needed before check_bugs. Everything advanced is in identify_cpu
   below. */
void __cpuinit early_identify_cpu(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	u32 tfms;

	c->loops_per_jiffy = loops_per_jiffy;
	c->x86_cache_size = -1;
	c->x86_vendor = X86_VENDOR_UNKNOWN;
	c->x86_model = c->x86_mask = 0;	/* So far unknown... */
	c->x86_vendor_id[0] = '\0'; /* Unset */
	c->x86_model_id[0] = '\0';  /* Unset */
	c->x86_clflush_size = 64;
	c->x86_cache_alignment = c->x86_clflush_size;
	c->x86_max_cores = 1;
	c->extended_cpuid_level = 0;
	memset(&c->x86_capability, 0, sizeof c->x86_capability);

	/* Get vendor name */
	cpuid(0x00000000, (unsigned int *)&c->cpuid_level,
	      (unsigned int *)&c->x86_vendor_id[0],
	      (unsigned int *)&c->x86_vendor_id[8],
	      (unsigned int *)&c->x86_vendor_id[4]);
		
	get_cpu_vendor(c);

	/* Initialize the standard set of capabilities */
	/* Note that the vendor-specific code below might override */

	/* Intel-defined flags: level 0x00000001 */
	if (c->cpuid_level >= 0x00000001) {
		__u32 misc;
		cpuid(0x00000001, &tfms, &misc, &c->x86_capability[4],
		      &c->x86_capability[0]);
		c->x86 = (tfms >> 8) & 0xf;
		c->x86_model = (tfms >> 4) & 0xf;
		c->x86_mask = tfms & 0xf;
		if (c->x86 == 0xf)
			c->x86 += (tfms >> 20) & 0xff;
		if (c->x86 >= 0x6)
			c->x86_model += ((tfms >> 16) & 0xF) << 4;
		if (c->x86_capability[0] & (1<<19)) 
			c->x86_clflush_size = ((misc >> 8) & 0xff) * 8;
	} else {
		/* Have CPUID level 0 only - unheard of */
		c->x86 = 4;
	}

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	phys_proc_id[smp_processor_id()] = (cpuid_ebx(1) >> 24) & 0xff;
#endif
}

/*
 * This does the hard work of actually picking apart the CPU stuff...
 */
void __cpuinit identify_cpu(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	int i;
	u32 xlvl;

	early_identify_cpu(c);

	/* AMD-defined flags: level 0x80000001 */
	xlvl = cpuid_eax(0x80000000);
	c->extended_cpuid_level = xlvl;
	if ((xlvl & 0xffff0000) == 0x80000000) {
		if (xlvl >= 0x80000001) {
			c->x86_capability[1] = cpuid_edx(0x80000001);
			c->x86_capability[6] = cpuid_ecx(0x80000001);
		}
		if (xlvl >= 0x80000004)
			get_model_name(c); /* Default name */
	}

	/* Transmeta-defined flags: level 0x80860001 */
	xlvl = cpuid_eax(0x80860000);
	if ((xlvl & 0xffff0000) == 0x80860000) {
		/* Don't set x86_cpuid_level here for now to not confuse. */
		if (xlvl >= 0x80860001)
			c->x86_capability[2] = cpuid_edx(0x80860001);
	}

	/*
	 * Vendor-specific initialization.  In this section we
	 * canonicalize the feature flags, meaning if there are
	 * features a certain CPU supports which CPUID doesn't
	 * tell us, CPUID claiming incorrect flags, or other bugs,
	 * we handle them here.
	 *
	 * At the end of this section, c->x86_capability better
	 * indicate the features this CPU genuinely supports!
	 */
	switch (c->x86_vendor) {
	case X86_VENDOR_AMD:
		init_amd(c);
		break;

	case X86_VENDOR_INTEL:
		init_intel(c);
		break;

	case X86_VENDOR_UNKNOWN:
	default:
		display_cacheinfo(c);
		break;
	}

	select_idle_routine(c);
	detect_ht(c); 

	/*
	 * On SMP, boot_cpu_data holds the common feature set between
	 * all CPUs; so make sure that we indicate which features are
	 * common between the CPUs.  The first time this routine gets
	 * executed, c == &boot_cpu_data.
	 */
	if (c != &boot_cpu_data) {
		/* AND the already accumulated flags with these */
		for (i = 0 ; i < NCAPINTS ; i++)
			boot_cpu_data.x86_capability[i] &= c->x86_capability[i];
	}

#ifdef CONFIG_X86_MCE
	mcheck_init(c);
#endif
	if (c == &boot_cpu_data)
		mtrr_bp_init();
	else
		mtrr_ap_init();
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	numa_add_cpu(smp_processor_id());
#endif
}
 

void __cpuinit print_cpu_info(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
	if (c->x86_model_id[0])
		printk("%s", c->x86_model_id);

	if (c->x86_mask || c->cpuid_level >= 0) 
		printk(" stepping %02x\n", c->x86_mask);
	else
		printk("\n");
}

/*
 *	Get CPU information for use by the procfs.
 */

static int show_cpuinfo(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
{
	struct cpuinfo_x86 *c = v;

	/* 
	 * These flag bits must match the definitions in <asm/cpufeature.h>.
	 * NULL means this bit is undefined or reserved; either way it doesn't
	 * have meaning as far as Linux is concerned.  Note that it's important
	 * to realize there is a difference between this table and CPUID -- if
	 * applications want to get the raw CPUID data, they should access
	 * /dev/cpu/<cpu_nr>/cpuid instead.
	 */
	static char *x86_cap_flags[] = {
		/* Intel-defined */
	        "fpu", "vme", "de", "pse", "tsc", "msr", "pae", "mce",
	        "cx8", "apic", NULL, "sep", "mtrr", "pge", "mca", "cmov",
	        "pat", "pse36", "pn", "clflush", NULL, "dts", "acpi", "mmx",
	        "fxsr", "sse", "sse2", "ss", "ht", "tm", "ia64", NULL,

		/* AMD-defined */
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, "syscall", NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, "nx", NULL, "mmxext", NULL,
		NULL, "fxsr_opt", "rdtscp", NULL, NULL, "lm", "3dnowext", "3dnow",

		/* Transmeta-defined */
		"recovery", "longrun", NULL, "lrti", NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,

		/* Other (Linux-defined) */
		"cxmmx", NULL, "cyrix_arr", "centaur_mcr", NULL,
		"constant_tsc", NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,

		/* Intel-defined (#2) */
		"pni", NULL, NULL, "monitor", "ds_cpl", "vmx", NULL, "est",
		"tm2", NULL, "cid", NULL, NULL, "cx16", "xtpr", NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,

		/* VIA/Cyrix/Centaur-defined */
		NULL, NULL, "rng", "rng_en", NULL, NULL, "ace", "ace_en",
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,

		/* AMD-defined (#2) */
		"lahf_lm", "cmp_legacy", "svm", NULL, "cr8_legacy", NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
		NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
	};
	static char *x86_power_flags[] = { 
		"ts",	/* temperature sensor */
		"fid",  /* frequency id control */
		"vid",  /* voltage id control */
		"ttp",  /* thermal trip */
		"tm",
		"stc",
		NULL,
		/* nothing */	/* constant_tsc - moved to flags */
	};


#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	if (!cpu_online(c-cpu_data))
		return 0;
#endif

	seq_printf(m,"processor\t: %u\n"
		     "vendor_id\t: %s\n"
		     "cpu family\t: %d\n"
		     "model\t\t: %d\n"
		     "model name\t: %s\n",
		     (unsigned)(c-cpu_data),
		     c->x86_vendor_id[0] ? c->x86_vendor_id : "unknown",
		     c->x86,
		     (int)c->x86_model,
		     c->x86_model_id[0] ? c->x86_model_id : "unknown");
	
	if (c->x86_mask || c->cpuid_level >= 0)
		seq_printf(m, "stepping\t: %d\n", c->x86_mask);
	else
		seq_printf(m, "stepping\t: unknown\n");
	
	if (cpu_has(c,X86_FEATURE_TSC)) {
		unsigned int freq = cpufreq_quick_get((unsigned)(c-cpu_data));
		if (!freq)
			freq = cpu_khz;
		seq_printf(m, "cpu MHz\t\t: %u.%03u\n",
			     freq / 1000, (freq % 1000));
	}

	/* Cache size */
	if (c->x86_cache_size >= 0) 
		seq_printf(m, "cache size\t: %d KB\n", c->x86_cache_size);
	
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
	if (smp_num_siblings * c->x86_max_cores > 1) {
		int cpu = c - cpu_data;
		seq_printf(m, "physical id\t: %d\n", phys_proc_id[cpu]);
		seq_printf(m, "siblings\t: %d\n", cpus_weight(cpu_core_map[cpu]));
		seq_printf(m, "core id\t\t: %d\n", cpu_core_id[cpu]);
		seq_printf(m, "cpu cores\t: %d\n", c->booted_cores);
	}
#endif	

	seq_printf(m,
	        "fpu\t\t: yes\n"
	        "fpu_exception\t: yes\n"
	        "cpuid level\t: %d\n"
	        "wp\t\t: yes\n"
	        "flags\t\t:",
		   c->cpuid_level);

	{ 
		int i; 
		for ( i = 0 ; i < 32*NCAPINTS ; i++ )
			if ( test_bit(i, &c->x86_capability) &&
			     x86_cap_flags[i] != NULL )
				seq_printf(m, " %s", x86_cap_flags[i]);
	}
		
	seq_printf(m, "\nbogomips\t: %lu.%02lu\n",
		   c->loops_per_jiffy/(500000/HZ),
		   (c->loops_per_jiffy/(5000/HZ)) % 100);

	if (c->x86_tlbsize > 0) 
		seq_printf(m, "TLB size\t: %d 4K pages\n", c->x86_tlbsize);
	seq_printf(m, "clflush size\t: %d\n", c->x86_clflush_size);
	seq_printf(m, "cache_alignment\t: %d\n", c->x86_cache_alignment);

	seq_printf(m, "address sizes\t: %u bits physical, %u bits virtual\n", 
		   c->x86_phys_bits, c->x86_virt_bits);

	seq_printf(m, "power management:");
	{
		unsigned i;
		for (i = 0; i < 32; i++) 
			if (c->x86_power & (1 << i)) {
				if (i < ARRAY_SIZE(x86_power_flags) &&
					x86_power_flags[i])
					seq_printf(m, "%s%s",
						x86_power_flags[i][0]?" ":"",
						x86_power_flags[i]);
				else
					seq_printf(m, " [%d]", i);
			}
	}

	seq_printf(m, "\n\n");

	return 0;
}

static void *c_start(struct seq_file *m, loff_t *pos)
{
	return *pos < NR_CPUS ? cpu_data + *pos : NULL;
}

static void *c_next(struct seq_file *m, void *v, loff_t *pos)
{
	++*pos;
	return c_start(m, pos);
}

static void c_stop(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
{
}

struct seq_operations cpuinfo_op = {
	.start =c_start,
	.next =	c_next,
	.stop =	c_stop,
	.show =	show_cpuinfo,
};

static int __init run_dmi_scan(void)
{
	dmi_scan_machine();
	return 0;
}
core_initcall(run_dmi_scan);