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 * @file backtrace.c
 * @remark Copyright 2004 Silicon Graphics Inc.  All Rights Reserved.
 * @remark Read the file COPYING
 * @author Greg Banks <>
 * @author Keith Owens <>
 * Based on work done for the ia64 port of the SGI kernprof patch, which is
 *    Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Silicon Graphics Inc.  All Rights Reserved.

#include <linux/oprofile.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <asm/ptrace.h>

 * For IA64 we need to perform a complex little dance to get both
 * the struct pt_regs and a synthetic struct switch_stack in place
 * to allow the unwind code to work.  This dance requires our unwind
 * using code to be called from a function called from unw_init_running().
 * There we only get a single void* data pointer, so use this struct
 * to hold all the data we need during the unwind.
typedef struct
	unsigned int depth;
	struct pt_regs *regs;
	struct unw_frame_info frame;
	unsigned long *prev_pfs_loc;	/* state for WAR for old spinlock ool code */
} ia64_backtrace_t;

/* Returns non-zero if the PC is in the Interrupt Vector Table */
static __inline__ int in_ivt_code(unsigned long pc)
	extern char ia64_ivt[];
	return (pc >= (u_long)ia64_ivt && pc < (u_long)ia64_ivt+32768);

 * Unwind to next stack frame.
static __inline__ int next_frame(ia64_backtrace_t *bt)
	 * Avoid unsightly console message from unw_unwind() when attempting
	 * to unwind through the Interrupt Vector Table which has no unwind
	 * information.
	if (in_ivt_code(bt->frame.ip))
		return 0;

	 * WAR for spinlock contention from leaf functions.  ia64_spinlock_contention_pre3_4
	 * has ar.pfs == r0.  Leaf functions do not modify ar.pfs so ar.pfs remains
	 * as 0, stopping the backtrace.  Record the previous ar.pfs when the current
	 * IP is in ia64_spinlock_contention_pre3_4 then unwind, if pfs_loc has not changed
	 * after unwind then use pt_regs.ar_pfs which is where the real ar.pfs is for
	 * leaf functions.
	if (bt->prev_pfs_loc && bt->regs && bt->frame.pfs_loc == bt->prev_pfs_loc)
		bt->frame.pfs_loc = &bt->regs->ar_pfs;
	bt->prev_pfs_loc = NULL;

	return unw_unwind(&bt->frame) == 0;

static void do_ia64_backtrace(struct unw_frame_info *info, void *vdata)
	ia64_backtrace_t *bt = vdata;
	struct switch_stack *sw;
	int count = 0;
	u_long pc, sp;

	sw = (struct switch_stack *)(info+1);
	/* padding from unw_init_running */
	sw = (struct switch_stack *)(((unsigned long)sw + 15) & ~15);

	unw_init_frame_info(&bt->frame, current, sw);

	/* skip over interrupt frame and oprofile calls */
	do {
		unw_get_sp(&bt->frame, &sp);
		if (sp >= (u_long)bt->regs)
		if (!next_frame(bt))
	} while (count++ < 200);

	/* finally, grab the actual sample */
	while (bt->depth-- && next_frame(bt)) {
		unw_get_ip(&bt->frame, &pc);
		if (unw_is_intr_frame(&bt->frame)) {
			 * Interrupt received on kernel stack; this can
			 * happen when timer interrupt fires while processing
			 * a softirq from the tail end of a hardware interrupt
			 * which interrupted a system call.  Don't laugh, it
			 * happens!  Splice the backtrace into two parts to
			 * avoid spurious cycles in the gprof output.
			/* TODO: split rather than drop the 2nd half */

ia64_backtrace(struct pt_regs * const regs, unsigned int depth)
	ia64_backtrace_t bt;
	unsigned long flags;

	 * On IA64 there is little hope of getting backtraces from
	 * user space programs -- the problems of getting the unwind
	 * information from arbitrary user programs are extreme.
	if (user_mode(regs))

	bt.depth = depth;
	bt.regs = regs;
	bt.prev_pfs_loc = NULL;
	unw_init_running(do_ia64_backtrace, &bt);